Yale

The Importance of the College Library

The Importance of the College Library

When visiting a campus one of the last places most students want to see is the library, or, depending on the size of the school, the library system.  Neglecting the library, however, is a big mistake.

Many of the main benefits students derive in college are associated with the library. Outside of class, most students spend their time in the dormitory, cafeteria, the gym, or in the library.

The Admissions Game

The Admissions Game

Some people apply to the most selective schools as if it were the lottery.  

One such recent case is that of Kwasi Enin. The son of Ghanian immigrants, Kwasi hit the proverbial jackpot by first applying to all eight Ivy League schools, and then, having scored a 2,250 on his SAT and placed #11 out of a class of 647 at William Floyd School, a public high school on Long Island, getting in to all eight.

The Collegiate Leadership Obsession

Admissions officers spend a lot of time sorting through raffs of transcripts, standardized test scores, essays, recommendations, interview summaries, portfolios, and lists of extracurricular activities in search of clues of leadership, that prized trait sought by hundreds of American college campuses.

The Benefits and Limits of Advanced Placement (AP) Courses

Some students in preparation for the challenges of college take four AP courses junior year, and another four or five senior year. Invariably, this makes for late nights studying, even cramming, although for many, this sometimes translates into delving into the subject and gaining a solid sense of the material. Whatever the motivation for joining a AP classes, it’s worth knowing how they’re perceived and used beyond high school.  

Having a number of AP courses on a transcript, and getting either a ‘4’ or ‘5’ (5 being the highest score achievable) on the exams, besides showing a student capable of college level work, can save money and possibly even generate scholarships. Many universities award credit for AP courses. Though, according to Trevor Parker, senior vice president for AP at College Board, gaining college credit was never the original intent of the AP program. Rather, it was to develop college academic skills at the high school level. In any case, the College Board website contains details of how colleges award credits for AP exams:

http://collegesearch.collegeboard.com/apcreditpolicy/index.jsp.

If a student matriculates into Yale, for example, with a score of ‘5’ in AP Chemistry, Biology, English Language, and a ‘4’ in AP Calculus BC, French, and Computer Science, she will be able to begin her Yale career with 8 credits, just two shy of entering as a sophomore; this is the equivalent of saving on 4/5’s of an academic year, which represents a savings of around $40,000. She’d also be able to accelerate into more advanced biology, chemistry, and other subjects. The downside is, should she apply to medical school, say, Keck Medical School at USC, and she doesn’t have college level introductory biology and chemistry, she would have to take those courses before she can enter medical school. Consequently, the benefits of gaining AP credit and accelerating, in those subjects, would be nullified.

Furthermore, there are discrepancies, even among the top schools, in how credits are awarded. For example, to get credit for AP Biology at Northwestern or Yale requires a ‘5’; at UC Berkeley credit is given for a ‘3’.

Moreover, there is growing doubt among universities about the rigor, content, and especially, the depth of the AP courses. Dartmouth just announced, beginning with the class of 2018, it will no longer grant credit for AP test scores. An independent experiment conducted by Dartmouth’s psychology department took all the Dartmouth freshmen who had received a ‘5’ in psychology and administered them the final from Dartmouth’s intro psychology course. 90% of the students failed. Dartmouth then monitored the students who failed the exam and then elected to take intro psychology: Dartmouth found that these students neither did better than classmates who had never taken AP Psychology, or those who had received below a ‘5’ on the AP test.   Yale, by the way, offers no credit for AP Exams in psychology or history.

Beyond the credit issue, students who take AP exams are eligible for certain scholarships. Siemens awards top students who have taken math and science exams and scored a ‘5’ on at least two of them. There are also a number of AP Scholar awards, http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/scholarawards.html.

Though the admissions offices like to see AP classes on applicant transcripts, high numbers of such classes don’t necessarily lead to admissions. One student, several years ago, took over 16 AP exams: she was rejected roundly at most of highly selective schools she applied to. Yes, admissions offices want students who are academically capable, but they also seek balance, and too many AP classes and exams are anything but.

AP courses are designed to be a means of rigorously delving into 34 different subjects (details of each can be found at the College Board’s new AP Website, ‘Explore AP,’ http://apstudent.collegeboard.org/exploreap): anything else they deliver is pure gravy.    

The SAT or the ACT?

To take the SAT, the ACT, or both is the question. About a fifth of test takers show a preference. The best way to discover if you’re part of the fifth is by taking ACT’s PLAN and the PSAT sophomore year. If you’re a junior you might, instead, take Princeton Review’s free SAT-ACT diagnostic test.

A number of students, however, take both the SAT and ACT to cover any standardized test requirements. This might seem judicious, yet if a college believes that an applicant is too test oriented, it will begin to question what such a candidate will contribute outside the classroom.   

Virtually all college admissions offices will gladly take either the SAT or ACT test to fulfill their standardized testing requirements. Some of the most elite schools in the country, including Amherst College, Brown, Duke, Johns Hopkins, Pomona College, Tufts, University of Pennsylvania, and Vassar, will accept the ACT with Writing instead of the SAT and the SAT subject tests.

So which test should you take? OK, if you're applying to Harvard, Yale, Princeton, or the University of Rochester, you might elect to take the SAT. These admissions offices like to see SAT scores. Regardless, even if you submit only an ACT to any of them, they can easily convert your ACT score into a comparable SAT score.

The College Board itself issues an official 'ACT/SAT concordance chart,' downloadable at the College Board website. Then again, it is a fact that the SAT is rooted in the Ivy League: the original administration of the test in 1926 was to 8,026 Ivy League scholarship students. Regardless, however much you might want to cater to the whims of an admissions office, the standardized test you submit will, in virtually all cases, not sink or make your application. A 2220 on the SAT will not trump a 33 composite on the ACT.

The decision as to which test should more be a matter of personal preference. If you are good at taking high school classroom tests, then the ACT might be the better test for you. It is curriculum based; it attempts to measure your mastery of key high school skills. For example, in geometry, you were taught the 30-60-90 triangle. Be assured there will be a question about it on the ACT. The SAT, on the other hand, measures reasoning and logic. The ACT does not penalize guessing; the SAT does. The ACT has a separate science section; the SAT does not. The ACT math contains a bit of trigonometry; the SAT doesn't.

Whether you plan to take the SAT or ACT, the best guide to purchase for the SAT is the College Board’s ‘The Official SAT Study Guide’ which contains 10 release exams, and for the ACT,/  Peterson’s ’Real ACT Prep Guide’, which contains five released exams. Don’t waste your time reading their test taking strategies—just take the tests and review in detail what you got wrong and understand why. Only use real exams to study for the tests. What’s the point of using an interpretation of the test? It makes no sense

Take as many practice tests as possible. You need to get an intuitive sense of the pacing of the test. The ACT in particular requires rigorous pacing. The ACT contains 215 questions to be answered in 175 minutes. This comes to 49 seconds a question. A successful test taker needs to make such timing innate across all sections of the test.

Yet beyond the relative merits of the ACT and SAT, a lot of schools are opting out of the standardized tests altogether. Just go to www.fairtest.org to see the current list of over 800 colleges and universities that do not require students to submit standardized tests with their applications. So, what does all this add up to? Complete lack of uniformity among our colleges and constant questioning of the role of standardized tests in the admissions process. There are no right answers, just different approaches. You, in the end, are the final judge as to which serves your purposes best. This is the American postsecondary educational system and it shouldn't, and probably never will, be any other way.

Financial Aid for the International Student

 

  • 6 Elite Schools have need-blind financial aid
  • Limited Financial Aid Available
  • History of funding at www.internationalstudent.com
  • Know the website of schools well
  • File CSS Profile or ISFAA
  • Submit Certification of Finances

Six schools, including Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Dartmouth, Amherst, and MIT are all ‘need blind’ and ‘full need’ regardless of a student’s country of origin. This means that if accepted, international students will obtain the necessary financial aid to attend. Be aware, however, that though these schools advertise themselves as being “need-blind,” which technically means that financial circumstances are not considered in the admissions process, how this might actually translate into the reality of admissions warrants consideration. Specifically, in the state of Connecticut, Yale has 478 international students, of whom, 77 (about 16%) were awarded an average aid package of $31,000; compare this with Connecticut College (56 of 209, (or 27%) of its international students, were awarded an average aid packages of $38,000); and Wesleyan (49 of 143 (34%) awarded an average package of $41,751), and it becomes difficult to discern which institutions are actually ‘need blind’ and ‘full need’ and which are practicing.   

Obviously, gaining admittance to a school with a large endowment, and, for the most part the most selective schools in the country are well endowed, improves the chances for an international student’s gaining financial aid. For example, Stanford, with an endowment of $16.5 billion, and with 885 international undergraduate students, awarded 203, on average, $29,000 in financial aid last year. What’s difficult about figuring out the international financial aid puzzle is each college sets its own policies. As you’d expect, there are not a lot (almost no) government funds available for international students. Be almost assured that, if you gain acceptance into University of California at Berkeley, for example, it will be charging you full tuition, room and board; that’s the reason Berkeley has allocated an ever larger portion of its admits to ‘out-of-state’ (including international students); it wants to garner full tuition revenues to offset dwindling state funding. Discovering the best opportunities for aid are a function of investigation, application, and luck.

To get a sense of what financial aid might be available to international students, go to www.internationalstudent.com  and click on “Schools Awarding Financial Aid.” You’ll encounter some very interesting information. I viewed the international financial aid awards in Massachusetts. Obviously, Amherst and Harvard, with their need-blind programs, award a lion’s share of the aid, but, not far behind them, in Massachusetts, are Williams, awarding 89 of 140 international students average packages of $37,000; Wellesley with 68 of 184, $37,000; Clark, 103 of 166, $21,000; and Smith College, 120 of 200, $30,000. These schools might be very good places to apply for international students needing financial aid. One surprise was Tufts, which has pretensions of being ‘almost ivy.’ Of its 384 international students, 10 received financial aid, which amounted to slightly less than $20,000 each.

What is crucial is that international students gain an understanding of all the financial aid requirements at each campus of interest. That requires reviewing thoroughly each school’s website to discover financial aid eligibility and deadlines. Keep in mind, even with financial aid awards, all international students will need to submit a Certification of Finances, proof that you have the financial resources to pay should you gain admittance. Additionally, all the private schools to which you’re applying, will require either a CSS Profile, or the ISFAA (International Student Financial Aid Application) to determine your effective family contribution (EFC). The earlier you submit all of these materials to the admissions or financial aid offices, the better.

There are a lot of colleges within the borders of the United States. Most applicants clump their applications among a select 80-120 (the ones that accept fewer than 50% of the applicants who apply). If you peer beyond the well-worn paths you’re liable to find some interesting matches that might be well worth the search and effort. Financial Aid does exist at many schools for international students; you just need to supply the effort and tenacity to find it. Do so. And as Winston Churchill said: “Never, never, never quit.”

 

외국인 학생을 위한 재정보조

  • 여섯 명문대의 무조건적 재정보조
  • 대부분 제한적인 재정보조
  • 자료찾기: www.internationalstudent.com
  • 지원대학의 웹싸이트이용
  • CSS Profile, ISFAA, Certification of Finances 필요한 서류 제출할

Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Dartmouth, Amherst, MIT-이 여섯 대학들은 학생의 나라 출신과 상관없이 필요에 따른 재정 보조를 준다.  즉, 일단 합격이 되면, 외국인 학생도 필요한 재정보조를 받을 수 있다.  한편, 이 대학들이 광고하는 “need-blind”란 재정 상황을 입학심사에서 고려하지 않는다는 뜻이지만, 실제 입학심사에서의 영향은 알 수 없다.  특히, 커네티컷에 있는 예일대는 478명의 외국인 학생이 있는데, 그 중 77명(16%)은 평균 $31,000을 받았다; Connecticut College에서는 209명 중 56명(27%); Wesleyan은 (143명 중 49명, 34%) 평균 $41,751을 받았다.  그래서 어떤 대학이 실제로 ‘need blind,’ ‘full need’를 실천하는지 구별이 어렵다.

분명, 많은 기부금이 있는 대학, 명문대학이 재정이 풍부하며, 외국인 학생이 제정보조를 받을 기회가 높다.  예를 들면, Stanford는 기부금이 $16.5 billion인데, 885명의 학부생 중 203명이 평균 $29,000을 작년에 받았다.  외국인 학생에 대한 재정 보조는 각 대학의 정책에 따라 달라서 퍼즐처럼 한마디로 말하기가 어렵다.  한편, University of California at Berkeley에 외국인이 들어간다면, 등록금, 기숙사비 모두를 내야 한다; Berkeley는 ‘out-of-state’ (주민외, 외국인 포함)학생을 많이 뽑으려 한다.  그래서 주정부의 줄어드는 펀드를 매꾸려 하고 있다.  그러므로 재정보조의 기회를 잡는 것은 조사, 응시, 그리고 행운이다.

외국인 학생에게 가능한 재정보조를 찾으려면,www.internationalstudent.com        에 가서 “Schools Awarding financial Aid”를 클릭하면 된다.  아마 흥미있는 자료를 만날 것이다.  필자는 Massachusetts를 찾아 보았다.  Amherst, Harvard는 ‘need-blind’ 프로그램이므로 거대한 몫이 주어지며, 또한 Williams는 140명의 외국인 학생 중 89명에게 평균 $37,000을 수여하였고, Wellesley는 184명 중 68명에게 $37,000; Clark는 166명중 103명에게 $21,000; Smith College는 200명 중 120명에게 $30,000을 수여하였다.  이 대학들은 외국인 학생들이 응시하여 많은 장학금을 받을 수 있는 곳이다.  또한 놀라운 것은 Tufts인데, 거의 아이비 수준이지만, 384명의 외국인 학생 중 10명만이 겨우 평균 $20,000을 받았다.

중요한 것은 캠퍼스마다 다르다는 것이다.  그래서 대학 웹싸이트에서 정보를 찾아 재정보조의 자격과 마감일을 잘 챙겨야 한다.  또한 기억할 것은 모든 외국인 학생들은 입학 후 재정을 보조할 수 있다는 Certification of Finances를 작성해야 한다.  또한 사립대학을 지원한다면, CSS Profile이나 ISFAA (International Student Financial Aid Application)을 작성하고 EFC (가족 부담금)을 결정해야 한다.  재정상담실에 서류를 일찍 제출할수록 유리하다.

많은 대학들이 미국내 있다.  그러나, 대부분의 원서들은 우수 80-120 순위 대학들(대부분 응시자의 50%이하를 수락한다)에 쌓인다.  여러분이 쉽게 갈 수 있는 길이 아닌 대학을 찾고자 한다면, 서치와 노력을 해야 한다.  많은 대학들의 재정보조가 외국인에게 열려있는 것은 아니다; 그렇지만 노력을 들이고 찾으려고 애를 써야 한다.  반드시 해라.  윈스톤 처칠은 “절대로, 절대로 절대 포기하지 말라”라고 하지 않았던가!

How Effective is a College You’re Planning to Attend at Educating its Students?

 

  •           CollegeMeasure.org Effectiveness @ 1,500+ colleges
  •           Compares Colleges across Specific Criteria
  •           Yale’s Cost per Student information

Trying to figure out where you might get the best postsecondary value for your educational dollar just became easier. On October 7th, 2010, the website CollegeMeasure.org went live. It’s a free, publicly available, not-for-profit site that has no advertising clutter or strange distractions: just cold hard numbers to compare which colleges do a good job at delivering value for the educational dollar, and which don’t. The organizations behind the site are the Matrix Knowledge Group (an international consulting company) and the American Institute of Research (which specializes in educational research) who both share grave concerns about the American college system which, currently, graduates less than 60% of its students in 6-years, who are attempting to gain degrees from 4-year colleges.

A key question: what do you measure to determine effectiveness and value?

  1. Graduation Rate (graduating in 6 years)
  2. Retention Rate (% of freshmen returning for sophomore year)
  3. Cost per Student (total direct educational costs/# of FTE students)
  4. Cost per Degree (all direct educational spending to acquire degrees/# of degrees awarded in the same year)
  5. Cost of Attrition (costs spent on 1st year students who don’t return for a second year)
  6. Student Loan Default Rate (% of students who default within one year of when loans come due)
  7. Ratio: Student Loan Payments: Earnings of Graduates (annual loan payment/median annual starting pay of graduates)

As you review the seven categories above, you’ll note that each measures 4 goals that any effective postsecondary institution should have: Completion and Progression include #1 & 2; Efficiency, #3; Productivity, #4 & 5; and Gainful employment, #6 & 7.

You can, of course, find a lot of this information at College Navigator. Putting a number on the Cost per Student, Degree, and Attrition, however, can only be found at College Measure.

There are many ways to look at the information. One is to take a category: Cost per Student and see across the 1500+ college universe which colleges invest the most in the direct education of its students. Once you click to the chart (and navigation is very easy and straightforward on www.collegemeasure.org), you will discover that the college spending far and away the most per student on an annual basis is Yale University, at $142,195. The screen shot below clearly tells how the $142,195 is divided: ‘Instruction’ (Yale’s professors are some of the best compensated professors in the country), ‘Student Services’, ‘Academic Support’,  Operation and Maintenance’ (Yale has a huge physical plant to maintain-most of the buildings were built during the depression and require substantial maintenance-further Yale is building two new colleges, recently purchased land from a pharmaceutical company to literally double its campus size, and is about to launch an Asian campus in Singapore-a joint venture with National University of Singapore. Some of these efforts are not reflected in the Cost per Student number, but a good portion are), and ‘Institutional Support’.   

There is a glossary supplied on the site that clearly explains what each category measures.

What’s interesting about Yale’s $142,000 cost per full-time (FTE) student is that Yale’s tuition is just under $40,000. In essence, through its endowment, Yale is subsidizing each student attending to the tune of about $100,000 per year. Additionally, if a student’s HH Income is less than $200,000, the family pays only 10% of its income towards tuition, a discount of $20,000 off the sticker price. Based on this information, along with this information, it’s not surprising so many students are banging down the door to get in.

Obviously, the very selective schools have an appeal and value all their own. There are a lot of schools you might want to evaluate using this tool. You need to be a discerning customer. The costs of not doing your homework are just too high. 

내가 입학하려는 대학은 교육에 얼마나 효과적인가?

 

CollegeMeasure.org에서는 1,500 이상의 대학을 평가한다.

여러 특정 기준들을 비교하자

예일대의 학생 비용의 정보를 살펴보자

여러분이 대학교육을 위해 투자하는 달러가 얼마나 효과적으로 쓰이는지 알아보자.  2010년 10월7일부터 CollegeMeasure.org가 나왔다.  이곳은 비영리이지만, 광고나 방해물이 없다: 단지 대학이 돈을 잘 쓰고 있는지를 비교하는 딱딱한 숫자들만 나열되어 있다.  Matrix Knowledge Group(국제컨설팅회사)와 American Institute of Research(교육리서치 전문)기관이 미국 대학에서 6년 만에 겨우 60%의 졸업률을 보이는 현상에 관심을 갖고 이 싸이트를 만들었다. 

주요 질문들: 교육의 효과와 가치평가

  1. 졸업률(6년안)
  2. 보유률(1학년의 재등록률)
  3. 학생당 드는 돈 (총 교육비/전일제 학생수)
  4. 학위당 드는 돈(학위취득에 쓰인 돈/학위자 수)
  5. 손실값 (재등록하지 않는 신입생에게 든 돈)
  6. 학생융자 체납률(1년안에 체납되는 비율)
  7. 학생융자할부금 : 졸업생의 수입 (년간 융자환원금/졸업생의 수입 중간가)

위의 7가지 조항을 보면, 교육 효율성에 따라 4가지 목표를 세울 수 있다: #1 & #2는 완성과 진보; #3 는 효율성; #4 & #5는 생산성; #6 & #7은 수익성있는 취업이다.

물론, College Navigator에서도 이런 정보를 찾을 수 있지만, 학생에 드는 돈, 학위에 드는 돈, 손실비용은 College Measure에서만 알 수 있다.

이 정보를 살펴보는 2가지 방법이 있다.  먼저, 학생당 드는 돈을 1500개 이상의 대학별로 비교하며, 어느 대학이 교육비를 가장 많이 투자하는 지 알 수 있다.  차트 (www.collegemeasure.org)를 클릭하기만 하면 된다.  예일대는 $142,195이다.  다음, 이 돈이 어떻게 나누어 지는지 알 수 있다: 수업(예일대의 교수 월급은 전국 최고), 학생써비스, 학업보조, 학교유지비(예일은 대부분의 건물이 공항기에 지어졌으며, 유지비가 심각하다; 현재 제약회사에서 땅을 구입하여 현 캠퍼스의 2배의 크기로 두 대학을 짓고 있다; 또한 싱가폴에 National University of Singapore와 합작으로 아시아 캠퍼스를 시작했다.  이러한 일들은 학생비용에 나타나지 않지만 큰 비중이다.), 그리고 대학보조비이다.

각 부문이 어떻게 측정되는지 싸이트를 참고하면 된다.

 (e.g.,Website information in English)

흥미있는 사실은 예일대의 전일제 학생당 비용이 $142,000인데, 등록금은 $40,000이하이다.  핵심은 대학자산이다.  예일대는 매년 학생 일인당 $1000,000을 보조하는 것이다.  추가로 HH수입이 가구당 $100,000이하이면, 수입의 10%만 내고, 등록금은 $20,000을 할인해 준다.    그러므로 많은 학생들이 입학하고자 예일의 문을 두드리는 것은 당연하다.

물론, 명문대학들은 이 정보에 대해 항소를 하며, 스스로 평가할 것이다.  어쨌든, 이 도구를 사용하여 많은 대학들을 평가할 수 있다.  그러므로 분별력있는 소비자가 되는 것이다.  즉, 단지 숙제를 안한다면, 치르는 값은 너무 높은 것이다.

The Academic Index (AI)

The Academic Index (AI)

Thirteen years ago, Michelle Hernandez, a former assistant director of admissions at Dartmouth College, wrote her groundbreaking work on the selective school admission process, A is for Admission.  The book contained a revelation about the existence of the academic index that is used prominently by seven of the eight Ivy League schools to rate applicants.

The Advantages of the Small College with the Resources of a Giant University

  • Enrolling in a school that is part of a Consortium
  • The Small community-feel of certain Big Universities
  • Don't be deceived by the size of the school
Sometimes when I recommend a small, liberal arts school to students, say a school like Pomona College, they're puzzled. Why in the world would they want to pay $45-50,000 a year for a school with 1,500 students (smaller than most high schools) and, in all likelihood, with limited resources? On the surface, such an objection makes sense. However, it doesn't account for the consortium of colleges to which Pomona belongs. This consortium opens a huge network of educational opportunities for all Pomona students, while maintaining Pomona's personal and intimate touch. Pomona is part of the Claremont College Consortium. There are a total of 5 undergraduate campuses: Claremont McKenna, which specializes in business and economics; Harvey Mudd, engineering; Pitzer, behavior sciences; Scripps, foreign language; and two graduate schools. None of these colleges is much bigger than a mid-sized dorm at UCLA, yet each has its own faculty, administration, admissions office, and curriculum. They also share a number of services and facilities among themselves: art studios, a biological field station, a 2,500-seat concert hall, interscholastic athletic teams, and the Claremont library that houses over 1.9 million volumes. Students at any of the member Claremont College Consortium can cross register for over 2,500 different courses given by its members. While the average class size at Pomona College is 14 students, a Pomona student has access to almost unlimited educational resources-and I haven't even touched on Pomona's exchange programs with Swarthmore and Colby (on the East Coast), or the Study Abroad Program, or the 3-2 engineering program with Cal Tech. The Claremont Consortium is by no means a rarity. A number of smaller schools band together to offer cross registration of courses, share study abroad programs, or their facilities. One of the best listings of consortia can be found on page 771 of "Fiske Guide to Colleges, 2009." It lists some of the "largest and oldest" of these programs:
  • The Associated Colleges of the Midwest (www.acm.edu ): 14 institutions including Carleton, Macalester, University of Chicago, Colorado College, and Grinnell (Iowa)
  • The Associated Colleges of the South (www.colleges.org): 16 institutions including  Davidson, University of Richmond, and Washington and Lee
  • Five College Consortium (www.fivecolleges.edu) : including Smith College, Amherst College and three others; allows any undergraduate at the member schools to cross register
  • Great Lakes Colleges Association (www.glca.org): joins together 12 liberal arts schools including DePauw, Kenyon (Ohio), and Kalamazoo, to offer study abroad programs.The listing above is by no means comprehensive. There are consortiums among Swarthmore, Haverford, Bryn Mawr, and the University of Pennsylvania; the Colleges of Worcester Consortium (including Tufts, Holy Cross, and others); The Associated Colleges of the Twin Cities...the list goes on.
On the flip side of small schools magnifying resources through joining a consortium, are big universities that gain the feel of a small school through special honors programs, residential colleges, and special programs. Honors programs in schools such as UCLA (http://www.ugeducation.ucla.edu/honors/hchome.html ), University of Michigan, or University of Wisconsin, emphasize small class size, select faculty, and "community atmosphere in a large university." Other schools build a sense of community through a residential college program, initiated by Oxbridge, and incorporated by Yale, Harvard, and Pennsylvania universities (among many). Then there are special programs, with very limited enrollment and very low student/faculty ratios. One example is Cornell University's College of Human Ecology and its Interior Design program. It has about 100 students and 14 faculty members, with access to a university of over 13,000 undergraduates. The moral to take from this is to not be deceived by the size of a school. In many cases, a small school can access the resources of a giant, while a giant school might very well have programs that make it feel like an intimate community. Uncovering these features requires research, questioning and, better still, a visit, if at all possible. There are no rules for what a school's size means, only potential opportunities that beckon investigation. Ralph Becker Founder, Ivy College Prep LLC -------------------------------------- 대학의 자원을 접할 있는 작은 대학의 장점
  • Consortium 속하는 대학 연구
  • 대학 중에서 작은 이웃처럼 느끼기
  • 학교의 크기에 신경 쓰지 말라
필자가 학생들에게 Pomona college처럼 규모가 작은 인문과학대학을 추천하면,  그들은 고개를 갸우뚱한다.  학비 45-50,000불을 내고 학생수는 1,500 명(일반 공립고보다 작은 숫자)이고, 자원이 풍부하지 않는 학교를 다닐 것인가?  겉으로는 이러한 반대의견이 맞다.  그러나, 이는 Pomona 대학이 속해있는 consortium대학들을 고려하지 않은 탓이다.  이러한 consortium에서는 속한 대학의 학생들에게 엄청난 교육의 기회를 제공한다.  또한 Pomona의 가족적인 친밀한 관계도 유지할 수 있다. Pomona는 Claremont College Consortium에 속한다.  총 5개교가 참여하고 있다: Claremont McKenna는 경영과 경제를 전문으로 한다; Harvey Mudd는 공학전문; Pitzer는 행동과학전문; Scripps는 외국어 전문; 그리고 2개교의 대학원이 있다.  5개교 각각은 UCLA의 기숙사보다 크지 않지만, 자체 교수진과, 행정부, 입학사정실과 교과과정을 갖고 있다.  반면, 많은 서비스와 시설은 공유한다: art studios, 생물학 현장, 2500좌석의 음악당, 운동부, 190만권의 장서를 가진 Claremont 도서실.  이 대학들의 학생들은 2,500의 개설과목들을 어느 대학에서나 등록할 수 있다.  Pomona의 수업당 학생수는 평균 14명이며, 이 학생들은 거의 무한의 교육자원을 얻을 수 있다.  필자가 경험하지는 않았지만, 이대학은 East Coast에 있는 Swarthmore, Colby대학과 교환프로그램이 있으며, 해외유학 프로그램과 Cal Tech에서의 공학프로그램도 있다. Claremont Consortium만 특이한 것이 아니다.  많은 작은 대학들이 수강신청, 해외유학 프로그램과 시설을 공유하여 신청하도록 한다.  아래의 자료는 오래되고 유명한 프로그램들이다(Fiske Guide to Colleges, 2009, p. 771참고).
  • The Associated Colleges of the Midwest (www.acm.edu ): 14 institutions including Carleton, Macalester, University of Chicago, Colorado College, and Grinnell (Iowa)
  • The Associated Colleges of the South (www.colleges.org): 16 institutions including  Davidson, University of Richmond, and Washington and Lee
  • Five College Consortium (www.fivecolleges.edu) : including Smith College, Amherst College and three others; allows any undergraduate at the member schools to cross register
  • Great Lakes Colleges Association (www.glca.org): joins together 12 liberal arts schools including DePauw, Kenyon (Ohio), and Kalamazoo, to offer study abroad programs.
위 자료만이 전부가 아니다.  그 외에도 Swarthmore, Haverford, Bryn Mawr, and the University of Pennsylvania; the Colleges of Worcester Consortium (including Tufts, Holy Cross, and others); The Associated Colleges of the Twin Cities등 이상의 리스트가 있다. 작은 대학들이 consortium으로 자원을 극대화하는 반면, 큰 대학들은 honors programs를 제공하며 작은 대학의 환경을 만들어준다.  UCLA, University of Michigan, University of Wisconsin의 honors programs은 소규모수업, 탁월한 교수진과 가족 같은 분위기를 내세운다.  Oxbridge대학은 residential college program을 만들어 가족 같은 분위기를 조성하며, Yale, Harvard, Pennsylvania 대학들도 시도하고 있다.  또한 적은 학생수에 교수비율의 특별 프로그램을 시행하는 대학도 있다.  Cornell대학의 College of Human Ecology와  Interior Design program은 13,000명의 재학생 중에서 100명의 학생과 14명의 교수진을 갖고 있다. 여기에서 배울 점은 대학의 크기에 좌우되지 말라는 점이다.  작은 대학들은 무한의 자원에 접할 수 있는 프로그램이 있으며, 큰 대학들은 친밀한 분위기를 가질 수 있는 프로그램을 갖고 있다.  이러한 자세한 특성들은 자료연구, 질문, 방문 등 여러 가지 방법으로 가능하다.  그러므로 학교의 크기가 의미하는 바보다는 심층조사로 잠재적 기회를 포착해야 한다.

Positioning Your Application- General Principles

Positioning Your Application- General Principles

Many admissions officers become upset when told of students' positioning their applications to highlight specific strengths. Somehow, such an enterprise is perceived as commercializing the admissions process. Yet, turn to politics, business, sports, art...and you'll note everyone must compete hard to sell their unique strengths to a very demanding public. The admissions process is no different. Actually, it just might be a bit more competitive than these other areas, if the targets of your desire are the most selective colleges.