Pre-Professional Programs

Post Baccalaureate Medical Options

Post Baccalaureate Medical Options

Should you, after graduating from college, hear the call of medicine, regardless of whether your transcript contains a generous dose of premed classes or not, all is not lost. You still might address your medical aspirations by joining a Post Baccalaureate Premedical Program (PB).

The list of programs, there are several hundred, can be found on the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) site, and span the universe of making a career change, enhancing your academic record (improving your GPA), or being part of a group underrepresented in medicine, or economically or educationally disadvantaged.

The Combined BS/DDS or DMD program

Should you be graduating from high school next year, and you aspire to become a dentist, then you might be a good candidate for the combined Baccalaureate DDS (doctor of dental surgery) or DMD (doctor of dental medicine) program. In the eyes of the American Dental Association (ADA), a DDS is the same as a DMD.

There are over 60 dental schools accredited by the ADA, all of which can be found at

The Complete Guide to BS/MD Programs by Todd Johnson: a review

An ever growing number of high school students who want to become doctors are taking a long, hard look at applying to medical school directly out of high school. They have good reason. The traditional medical school process is highly competitive and it takes at least 8 years, between undergraduate and medical school, to finish. Gaining admission to a BS/MD program might allow them to avoid taking the MCAT altogether, while finishing medical school in as few as six years.

Todd Johnson’s The Complete Guide to BS/MD programs, clearly explains the admissions process in seven chapters and an appendix which comprehensively lists all the BS/MD programs. 

The Nursing (BSN) Major Considered

Nursing is the third most popular college major, which isn’t a surprise when you consider the profession contains over 2.9 million registered nurses (RNs), who outnumber physicians four to one, and who, on average, earn just under $62,000 annually. That’s a lot of people making a reasonable income in a job that can be personally quite rewarding, though not without its challenges and difficulties.

Treading the Pre-Law Path

  • There is no Pre-Law major
  • Advice on studies for becoming a lawyer
  • Researching various law school programs

Just as there is no official ‘pre-med’ major, there is no ‘pre-law’ major. Some schools, such as Northwestern University (NU), however, have Legal Studies as an ‘adjunct major’. Yet, this means it cannot be a sole major; it must be taken in conjunction with another departmental major, which can be anything from history of art to physics.

As the Northwestern website notes, “What you must do to prepare for law school…is to train your brain…you must develop the ability to write cogently…, to analyze carefully…, to reason logically, and to speak…articulately. These are the skills which will take you farthest in law school and in the practice of law…It doesn't matter so much whether you develop these skills in analyzing political institutions (as a political science major), metaphysical arguments (as a philosophy major)… or molecular structures (as a chemistry major); what matters is that you learn to use your mind effectively in a range of intellectual domains. Look for a major that demands a considerable amount of challenging reading and writing and that gives you some opportunities for small classes and seminars in which you can develop your speaking ability and in which faculty may get to know you better than they can in large lecture classes.” (, 12 January 2011)

While you ‘train your brain,’ you will also need to perfect your test-taking skills. To get into a good law school (and you probably want to go to the best law school you can) you’ll need, in addition to top grades, very solid LSAT scores. LSAT scores are curved on a scale of 120-180, with a 170 considered fairly exceptional. Additionally, once in law school, each semester you’ll be taking a full set of finals. Then, of course, you’ll need to pass the Bar, which is no small feat in itself.

One other component that you’ll need is to gain the internship experience so that you have a solid sense of what a lawyer does. Northwestern is one university that is a steadfast believer in encouraging, to the point of insisting, that its students in virtually all disciplines (pre-med, and journalism included) gain experience to mix with classroom theory. For aspiring lawyers, Northwestern has the NEXT (Northwestern Extern) program that connects you with NU alumni lawyers who are willing to let you job shadow. It’s also important to do summer internships to gain a true sense of legal practice. In addition, joining the Mock Trial Association, on whichever campus you plan to attend is yet another way to prepare yourself for the rigors of law.

Next, you might want to do some research to determine which law schools might be good matches. There are several places where you can conduct your due diligence. The first is at the US News and World Report listing of the top law schools: Not only is US News ranking law schools, it’s also ranking law firms (something new this year). It also divvies up schools by legal specialties such as international, intellectual property and healthcare. Then, if you wish to take your research just one more step farther along, you might research an individual law school to gain a sense of admissions rates, GPA requirements, LSAT score averages etc. at The ABA-LSAC Official Guide to ABA-Approved Law Schools., It has a free on-line component:  which gives you the admission and curriculum details of  most of the top law schools.  

After reviewing all this, ask yourself honestly if you’re ready to commit to a legal career. It is a huge commitment of money (costs vary depending upon whether you enter a public or private law school), and three years of stress and often brutal competition. To gain a sense of just how competitive, dip into Scott Turow’s  One L: The Turbulent True Story of a First Year at Harvard Law School. After your research is complete and your commitment confirmed, I’ll rest my case.


법과 대학원으로 가는 Pre-Law

  • Pre-Law라는 전공은?
  • 미래 법률가에게 하는
  • 법과 대학 프로그램 알아보

 Pre-med 라는 전공이 없듯이 Pre-Law라는 전공도 없다.  그러나, Northwestern University(NU)에는 부전공으로 ‘Legal Studies’가 있다.  이 전공 학생은 다른 주 전공, 즉 역사나 물리학 등 다른 분야의 전공이 따로 있다.

Northwestern 대학의 웹싸이트(, 12 January 2011)를 살펴 보면, “법과 대학원으로 가려면, 두뇌를 훈련해야 한다….논리적으로 사고하고, 명확하게 말할 수 있도록.  이 기술이야 말로 법을 공부하면서, 현장에 나와서도 꼭 필요하다.  이 기술을 정치학 전공으로 정치에서 쌓든지, 철학전공으로 형이상학 논쟁을 하든지….화학전공으로 분자구조를 분석하든, 상관이 없다; 중요한 점은 지적분야에서 효과적으로 쌓는 것이다.  그러므로 많은 독서와 글쓰기가 필요하고, 소규모 수업과 세미나에 참여하는 기회가 많고 교수와 잘 사귈 수 있는 전공을 찾아라”라고 추천하고 있다.

한편, 시험기술도 길러야 한다.  명문 법과대학에 입학하려면, 좋은 성적과 LSAT 성적이 중요하다.  LAST는 120-180등급으로 나뉘는데, 170은 아주 우수하다.  또한 매 학기 종합적인 기말고사를 치러야 한다.  그 다음, 변호사 시험(the Bar)에 합격해야 한다. 

또한, 인턴쉽에서 법조계에 대한 경험을 하는 것이 중요하다.  Northwestern 대학은 현장실습(pre-med, 언론학 등도 포함)을 교실 이론과 더불어 매우 중요하게 강조한다.  그래서, 이 대학에서는 NEXT (Northwestern Extern)프로그램으로 학생들을 NU 졸업생 법률가들에게 연결하여 직업경험 (job shadow)을 하게 한다.  물론 summer intership도 실제적인 연습을 위해 중요하다.  추가로, Mock Trial Association(모의 재판 연구회)에 가입하여 법에 대한 열정을 키우는 것도 좋다.

이제 어떤 법과대학이 여러분이 잘 맞는지를 알아보자.  여러 곳을 통하여 가능하다.  먼저, US News and World Report에서는 명문대 리스트를 제공한다

(  법과 대학 뿐만 아니라, 법률회사(law firms)에 대한 랭킹도 알 수 있다 (올해 새로운 정보이다).  또한 전문분야(international, intellectual property, healthcare…)별로 나누고 있다.  더 나아가 각 대학에 대하여, 입학률, GPA 요구조건, LSAT 평균성적 등을 알려면, The ABA-LSAC Official Guide to ABA-Approved Law Schools (에 가면 무료제공이다. 

위의 여러 가지를 고려한 후, 솔직하게 자신에게 물어야 한다: 법률가로 헌신할 준비가 되었는가?  물론 공부하는 비용(공립과 사립의 차이가 나지만)도 만만치 않고, 3년간의 스트레스와 치명적인 경쟁을 치러야 한다.  경쟁을 알려면, Scott Turow의 One L: The Turbulent True Story of a First Year at Harvard Law School을 권한다.  여러분의 리서치가 끝나고 헌신이 준비된다면, 나도 case를 맡기겠다.

Undergraduate Business Programs


  • Bloomberg Business Week research various programs
  • Concerns undergraduate business program
  • Babson College-an eminent program in Needham, MA

 Economic realities, particularly high unemployment rates and skyrocketing college costs, are encouraging many students to consider studying business administration as undergraduates. Back in 1968, about 13% of Bachelor degrees awarded were in business.  This made business the third most popular major at the time. By 2008, more than one out of every five Bachelor degrees awarded were in business, making it, by far, the most popular undergraduate major.

Popularity of this scope tends to attract ever larger audiences of students to it. A good place to gain a better sense of what a business degree entails, and which programs are the best is the Bloomberg/Business Week’s site on the Top Undergraduate Business Programs, Just to defuse the suspense, this year’s top business program was Notre Dame’s Mendoza School of Business. Besides the ranking, you’ll also find a lot of information about the various programs including the program’s length, the recruiter survey of the school (these are the people that interview the school’s business candidates for possible employment), teaching quality, median starting salary of graduates…all told there are 18 criteria to consider and weigh.

What I like even more about this site is it also has in depth reviews on each of the programs, . At this link you can find out detailed admissions requirements, academic requirements of the program, Alumni career information, and even graduate comments. There is a lot of information to compare and contrast. This is a good site to really delve into and learn from.

While Business Week’s listings might whet your appetite for starting to explore the world of undergraduate business schools, a recent book by Andrew Hacker and Claudia Dreifus, Higher Education? How Colleges are Wasting our Money and Failing our Kids, raises a number of concerns about such vocational training becoming ever more entrenched in our colleges and universities. One of their first concerns is who is actually teaching business courses to undergraduates? It appears that many schools, including Wharton, prefer faculty with PhDs over actual hands-on business men or women. Business, by its very nature, is practical and hands on; just how effective can an academic with little applied business experience be?  Then there is the question about what these teachers will teach.  Many business teachers use case studies involving corporate strategy, which leads to the next concern about undergraduate business coursework: how many students will be able to apply such material to their first jobs in business?  A truly provocative argument arises from the fact that the chief executive of Costco majored in sociology; the head of Goldman Sachs, English; and the chairmen of IBM, Proctor & Gamble, Union Pacific and Wyeth all majored in history.  Are the liberal arts really passé and antiquated, or merely misunderstood? 

Despite that dose of reality, it still might be worth your while to preview one of the top business programs in the country at Babson College in Massachusetts, ranked number 17 on the Bloomberg Business Week 2010 listing. Babson, a school with only 1,800 undergraduates, all of whom graduate with a BA in business, mixes liberal arts and business coursework into what it calls a “practical business education.” During freshman year, all students take Foundations of Management and Entrepreneurship (FME).  In this course students learn to start and run (and eventually) liquidate a business (with all profits destined to charity). Additionally, many of the classes are actually headed up by influential business leaders: CEOs, CFOs, and other executives, which directly, at least at Babson, contends with the Higher Education claim that business schools prefer academics to real business people.

Once again a lot of details and comparisons of Babson’s program can be discovered and made on the Bloomberg Business Week site. The key to this or any business program for that matter, is not necessarily the campus, the curriculum, or even the teachers, but the commitment, curiosity and dedication of the students to just get down to business. A lot of ideas, and even more sweat, might just be the place where your business acumen is sparked.

학부 경영학 프로그램

  • Bloomberg Business Week: 리서치에 훌륭한 싸이트
  • Babson College: Needham, MA 있는 뛰어난 경영학 학부 프로그램의 대학

 경제 현실, 높은 실업률, 엄청난 대학 교육비를 생각할 때, 많은 학생들은 학부에서 경영학을 전공하고 싶어한다.  1968년에는 대학생의 약 13%가 경영학도 이었으며, 경영학은 세번째로 인기있는 학과였다.  2008년에는 5명 중 한 명 이상이 경영학도이며, 현재까지 가장 있기있는 전공이다.

경영학의 인기는 더욱 많은 학생들을 끌고 있다.  경영학에 대해 더 알아보고자 하면, Bloomberg/Business Week’s Top Undergraduate Business Programs,  에서 어떤 프로그램이 가장 좋은지를 파악할 수 있다.  미리 알려 준다면, Notre Dame’s Mendoza School of Business 이다.  순위뿐만 아니라, 프로그램의 길이, 리쿠르터(직원을 뽑고자 인터뷰를 하는 사람들)의 설문조사, 교육의 질, 졸업생의 평균 연봉…18가지의 기준 사항들을 알 수 있다.

필자는 무엇보다 이 싸이트의 깊이 있는 조사를 강조하고 싶다. .  이 링크에서는 입학요건들, 학업 요구조건, 졸업생 정보, 졸업생들의 설명까지 담고 있다.  또한 비교 분석할 수 있는 많은 정보들이 있다.  이곳에서 깊이 있는 써치로 많은 것을 배울 수 있다.

Business Week 보다 더 많은 것을 알고 싶다면,  Andrew Hacker and Claudia Dreifus의 Higher Education? How Colleges are Wasting out Money and Failing out Kids를 권한다.  이 저서는 대학에서의 직업교육의 실체와 문제점을 제시하고 있다.  먼저, 대학의 경영학을 누가 가르치는가?  Wharton을 비롯한 많은 대학들이 실질적 비즈니스 men/women 이 아닌 박사학위를 가진 학자를 선호한다는 점이다.  경영이란 본질적으로 실용학문이다.  학위만 가진 실용성이 떨어지는 교육이 얼마나  효과적이겠는가?  다음, 이런 교수들이 무엇을 가르치는가?  많은 교수들은 회사 전력을 비롯한 cast study를 하면서, 학과수업에는 등한히 한다.  얼마나 많은 학생들이 졸업 후 첫 직장에서 이 공부를 적용하겠는가?  실제적인 예로서 Costco의 CEO는 사회학; Goldman Sachs 회장은 영어; IBM, Proctor&Gamble, Union Pacific and Wyeth 회장들은 모두 역사를 전공했다.  인문과학이 유행이 지났다고 할 수 있겠는가?

다음으로Babson College in Massachusetts대학을 the Bloomberg Business Week 2010 에서 17위를 기록함을 살펴볼 가치가 있다.  Babson 대학은 1,800명의 학부생 중에서 인문학과 경영학 과목들을 “practical business education’ 일환으로 같이 수강한다.  1학년 때는 모든 학생들이 Foundations of Management and Entrepreneurship(FME)를 수강한다.  이 과목에서 사업의 시작과 운영, 그리고 처분하거나 헌납하는 것을 배운다.  또한 많은 과목들이 실제로 CEO, CFO 회사대표들에 의해 이루어 진다.  이런 면에서 Babson 은 적어도 Higher Education?에서 지적한 실제 사업가를 선호하고 있다.

Babson 대학에 대한 여러가지 자세한 정보와 비교를 Bloomberg Business Week 싸이트에서 알 수 있다.  결론적으로 경영학은 캠퍼스, 커리큘럼, 교수의 문제가 아니라 헌신, 호기심, 비즈니스에 임하는 자세이다.  많은 사고와 더 많은 땀만이 여러분의 비즈니스 능력을 밝힐 것이다.

Growing Popularity of Becoming a Pharmacist

  • What you need to Become a Pharmacist
  • Exploring Pharm. D.  programs at  the AACP website
  • USC’s TAP Program

If you have a strong penchant for biology or chemistry, and are even contemplating majoring in one of them in college, yet aren’t stirred by the Siren song of medical, dental, or veterinary school, you might want to try pharmacy school. What does a pharmacist do? The best way is to actually job shadow one as she performs her daily duties of organizing and coordinating medications with doctors and patients. Or you could just take your next prescription into a CVS, or Rite Aid and look across the counter: you’ll see what about 2/3rds of those that become licensed pharmacists do.

If you want to conduct a more formal search, then go to the AACP (American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy) by clicking on the following link: You’ll find over a dozen articles from “Top 10 Reasons for Becoming a Pharmacist” to “Job Outlook for Pharmacists.”  By the year 2020, because of the aging population and the growing number of pharmaceuticals reaching the market, the US expects a shortfall of 157,000 pharmacists. Currently the median income is $115,000. Pharmacist’s compensation is clearly heading higher between now and 2020.

Convinced that this warrants a bit more consideration? To become a pharmacist, you must get a Pharm. D. degree—which you can without a bachelors—right out of high school, in six years. Two of those years will be spent as an undergraduate, gaining the scientific foundation, and four in a combination of graduate classes and clinical rotation. With your Pharm. D. in hand, you then need to pass the state certification exam and you’re ready to become a purveyor of pharmaceuticals.

One of the questions that might cross your mind is what it is a pharmacist must master over six years? A PDF on the AACP website entitled, “Doctor of Pharmacy Degree”  breaks down the studies into 6 areas: 1. Pharmaceutical chemistry: learning how chemicals are used in medicine and how to detect their purity and efficacy; 2. Pharmacognosy: dealing with ‘natural drugs’ found in nature-such as quinine, derived from the bark of a cinchona tree and used for treating malaria; 3. Pharmacology: how drugs act in the body, and the effects of doses; 4. Business management: many pharmacists run their own businesses; 5. Pharmacy practice: how to professionally dispense and track usage of drugs; 6. Clinical practice—which varies from school to school. Massachusetts School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, has Pharm. D. students spending well over 1500 hours on clinical rotation across a range of facilities.

If this article has stimulated a voracious desire to become one of 54,000 students in the 115 colleges and universities offering first time professional degrees in Pharm. D. then it might not be a bad idea to do your search for institutions at the AACP website, which contains a college locator: If you wish to enroll into a Pharm. D. program directly from high school, the program is alluded to as a ‘0-6’ program. Some of the schools that have such programs are University of Pacific in Stockton, California, Northeastern in Boston, and St. Johns in New York. The AACP website contains a search engine to compare the various Pharm. D. programs by length and PCAT scores. (Note, though Pearson education offers this SAT type test, a lot of pharmacy schools don’t require it.)

There are alternatives to the 0-6 program. One worth mentioning is USC’s Trojan Admission Pre-Pharmacy program (TAP), which allows entering freshmen to finish their bachelors in 2 years and then enter USC’s Pharm. D. program, one of the largest in the country. Get on the PharmCAS, which is the Common Application for pharmacy schools, and start pounding out your applications. And remember: don’t mix niacin and Lipitor, and drink plenty of water with that.                                                                             

약사가 되자

  •         약제사가 되기 위한 조건
  •        AACP웹싸이트의조사하기
  •        USC TAP 프로그램

여러분이 생물학과 화학에 강하고, 대학에서 이 분야를 전공하고 싶고, 의과, 치과, 수의학 외에 다른 전공을 원한다면, 약학이 적격이다.  약사는 무슨 일을 하는가?  가장 많이 하는 일은 처방을 내리고 적용하는 일 일것이다.  아니면, CVS나 Rite Aid의 카운터에서 처방전을 주고서 하는 일을 지켜보면 알 수 있다.

만약 더 공식적으로 살펴보고자 하면, AACP (전미 약학 대학 연맹)의

웹싸이트(에서 찾을 수 있다.  “약사가 되어야 하는 10가지 이유,” “약사 직업 알아보기” 등 많은 기사들이 있다.  2020년까지 인구의 노령화와 제약회사의 증가로, 미국 내 157,000명의 약사가 부족할 것이다.  약사의 중간 수입은 현재 $115,000 이며, 계속 오를 예정이다.

이제 약사를 고려하고 싶은가요?  약사가 되려면, Pharm.D. 학위가 있어야 하며, 고교 졸업 후 6년이 걸린다.  그 중 2년은 학부과정으로 과학적인 기초를 다지고, 4년은 대학원과정과 병원 실습이다.  학위를 가지고 주정부 자격시험에 패스하면, 제약회사에 갈 수 있다.

약사가 되기 위한 6년 기간 동안 무엇을 해야 하는가?  AACP의 웹싸이트의 “약학박사”의 기사를 보면, 6가지의 영역으로 공부가 나뉘어져 있다.  1.  약학 화학: 케이칼이 어떻게 약학에 쓰이는 지와 순도와 효율성 2. Pharmacognosy: 말라리아 퇴치제인 치코나 나무껍질 등의 ‘자연 의약’ 다루기 3. Pharmacology: 약이 몸에서 반응하는 법과 약의 량 조절하기 4. 경영: 약국경영 배우기 5. 제약 실습: 약의 량 조절과 적용  6. 병원 실습: 학교마다 차이가 나지만, Mass. School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences 의 Pharm. D. 학생은 1500시간을 보내야 한다.

115개 대학에서 54,000명을 위한 Pharm. D. 프로그램을 처음으로 여는데, AACP의 웹싸이트에서 찾을 수 있다.  만약 여러분이 고교 졸업 후 바로 Pharm. D.  프로그램에 들어 가고자 하면, ‘0-6’프로그램이 매력적이다.  University of Pacific in Stockton, California와  Northeastern in Boston, 과  St. Johns in New York 등이다.  AACP에는 Pharm. D. 프로그램의 길이, PCAT 의 성적을 비교하고 있다( (Pearson 출판사에서는 SAT 시험처럼 문제집이 있으나, 대부분의 대학에서는 요구하지 않는다.)

0-6 프로그램외에도 프로그램들이 있다.  USC의 TAP(Trojan Admission Pre-Pharmacy)프로그램이다.  이는 2년간 학부를 마치고, 전국에서 가장 큰  USC Pharm. D.  프로그램에 들어간다.  이제, Common Application에서 약학을 위한 PharmCAS를 찾아서 원서를 쓰기시작하자.  그러나, niacin과 Lipitor를 섞지말자 (너무 독하다),그리고 많은 량의 물을 마시자.


Treading the Pre-Med Path

As a pre-med student you’ll take a series of classes in organic and inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, biology, calculus, physics, and possibly genetics—the list, though pretty uniform, might vary slightly by school. That’s it. You aren’t obligated to major in biology or chemistry, in fact, Stanford’s Premedical Association states on its website: “It is ‘convenient’ to major in Biology (sic) because many of the premed requirements are also requirements for the Biology (sic) major, so it requires less time to complete both. However, medical schools also like to accept premed students, who have broad interests and have chosen a non-traditional major, so do not be deterred if you are passionate about Art History (sic). In conclusion, you can major in any subject you want!”  (,  15 January 2011).