Opencourseware

Trends among Top Colleges

  •          Expanding Early Admissions
  •          Going ACT/SAT Optional: Fair Test
  •          Opening up International Campuses
  •          The Distance Learning Option is mostly Free

 

When is enough ever enough? You might want to ask William Fitzsimmons, dean of admissions at Harvard, that very question. This year Harvard received over 35,000 applications for 1,700 offers. That is slightly over a 4.8% acceptance rate. By some estimates, 1 out of every 50 college-ready high school seniors sent an application to Harvard. Frankly, with Harvard’s aggressive financial aid package for any family making HHI under $180,000, and with its single essay supplement to the Common Application, the applicant pool might exceed 40,000 next year.

Despite these numbers, Harvard has decided to resurrect its early decision program. Too many outstanding candidates are going to Stanford and Yale, and that is unacceptable. Even though Harvard, along with Princeton and University of Virginia, abandoned early decision in 2006, it is back for fall 2011. Brown University, its applicant pool for 2015 up a paltry 3%, is also taking action. Last summer it removed restrictions on its Early Decision policy. The policy now allows candidates to apply to other early action programs.  

Another trend that many selective colleges are joining is the move to make SAT and ACT tests optional. This is not, as yet something Harvard has done, but the list of schools making the submission of SAT or ACT scores optional is over 830.  De Paul, a Roman Catholic university in Chicago with over 16,000 undergraduate students, one of the largest private universities in the country, just joined the list. The list, part of the Fair Test movement, already includes Smith College, Mount Holyoke (MA), Wake Forest, Hamilton, Bowdoin, Middlebury (VT), and NYU.   NYU’s policy is probably better described as test-flexible. You can submit any combination of test scores: 3 AP scores, 3 SAT II Scores, or just the SAT/ACT. Middlebury is similar in requiring SAT, ACT, or 3 SAT Subject Tests be submitted: the choice is yours. What is happening, is leading universities are recognizing the limitations of standardized tests in predicting performance and they’re actively seeking talented students who are not top standardized test takers. Expect this to be happening at more and more universities and colleges over time.

Opening campuses abroad is now in full swing for many selective schools. One of NYU’s personal statements now asks: “ NYU is 'In and of the City' and 'In and of the World.' What does the concept of a global network university mean to you? How do you think studying in New York City, Abu Dhabi, or one of NYU's global sites would change you as a person and equip you to build cross-cultural relationships at NYU and beyond?’ Yale is opening a campus, in conjunction with the National University of Singapore, in Singapore in 2013; it will be named Yale-NUS College. In Qatar, in the Persian Gulf, you can now study medicine at Weill Medical College of Cornell University, international affairs at Georgetown, business at Carnegie Mellon, and, coming soon, journalism at Medill School of Journalism of Northwestern University. All have campuses outside of Doha, the capital.

Free access to courses at some of the most selective schools is expanding aggressively. Yale on line http://oyc.yale.edu/, offers free downloadable courses (along with transcripts of the classes) across a dozen disciplines. At iTunes U, you can find offerings from Cambridge, Cornell, Duke, Emory, Oxford, Stanford, UC Berkeley, University of Tokyo, and Notre Dame.

What do these trends suggest?  Within the confines of the traditional admissions process, the demand for the Ivy, Stanford, or Duke degree appears insatiable and ever more expensive. Further, the use of early action or decision is expanding as admissions offices seek to actively control the composition of their classes as early in the process as possible. Separately, using standardized tests as an accurate measure of future performance is being called increasingly into doubt. Furthermore, U.S. universities and colleges are increasingly going global. This will absorb some of the demand. Distance learning, being able to actually take a Yale or Oxford course online is widespread; whether that satisfies the demand for the name on a sheepskin is another matter entirely. 

명문대학의 경향

  •          얼리 입학의 확장
  •          ACT/SAT 시험의 선택사항: 시험에 대한 정당한 물결
  •          해외 캠퍼스 열기
  •          대부분 무료로 원거리 교육실시

 언제 대학을 지원하는 것이 좋은가?  Harvard 대학의 입학처장인 William Fitzsimmons에게 물어보자.  하바드는 1,700명 모집에 35,000 이상의 원서가 접수되었다.  합격률은 4.8%정도이다.  대략 50명의 고교졸업생 중 1명이 응시한 것이다.  솔직히, HHI $180,000 아래의 가정에 제공되는 학비보조 프로그램과 Common Application과 함께 에세이 하나를 제출하면 되니까, 내년에는 40,000이상의 응시자가 몰릴 것이다.

이 숫자에도 불구하고, 하바드는 얼리 디시젼을 부활시키기로 결정했다.  우수한 많은 학생들이 Stanford, Yale 에 가는 것을 참을 수 없기 때문이다.  2006년, Harvard는 Princeton, University of Virginia와 같이 얼리 디시젼을 포기했었지만, 2011년 가을에는 다시 살리는 것이다.  Brown University는 응시자가 3%정도는 늘고 있지만, 얼리 액션을 취하고 있다.  지난 여름 얼리 디시젼의 제한을 제거하고, 학생들이 다른 얼리 액션 프로그램에 응시할 수 있도록 했다.

명문대학의 또 다른 경향은 SAT/ACT 시험을 선택사항으로 한다는 점이다.  물론, 하바드는 아니지만, 이미 선택사항으로 하는 대학들이 830여개나 된다.  Chicago에 있는 재학생이 16,000명 넘는 전국적으로 가장 큰 사립대에 속하는 Roman Catholic 대학인 De Paul대학도 이 리스트에 합류했다.  시험에 대한 정당한 물결은 이미 Smith College, Mount Holyoke (MA), Wake Forest, Hamilton, Bowdoin, Middlebury (VT), NYU에서 일어나고 있다.  NYU는 유연적인 시험경향이라고 할 수 있다.  즉, 여러 시험을 제출할 수 있다: 3 AP 점수, 3 SAT II 점수, SAT/ACT점수.  Middlebury도 비슷하게 SAT, ACT, 3 SAT subject tests에서 선택할 수 있다.  가능한 설명은 명문대학들이 시험의 문제성을 인식하고 있으며, 시험성적이 뛰어나지 않지만, 우수한 학생들을 찾고 있다는 점이다.  이제 더 많은 대학들에서 이러한 경향이 나타날 것이다.

또한 해외 캠퍼스를 여는 것이 많은 명문대학들의 진행방향이다.  NYU의 에세이 질문을 보면: “NYU는 도시 안팎에 속한 대학이며, 세계 안팍에 속한 대학이다.  세계 네트웍 대학이 의미하는 바는 무엇인가?  NYC, Abu Dhabi, 혹은 세계 다른 장소에서 공부하는 것이 여러분을 다양한 문화체험에 어떤 영향을 미치는가?”  Yale은 싱가폴의 국립대학과 연대하여 Yale-NUS College 캠퍼스를 열고 있다.  Persian Gulf의 Qatar에서는 Weill Medical college of Cornell University, international affairs at Georgetown, business at Carnegie Mellon를 공부할 수 있으며, 곧, journalism at Medill School of Journalism of Northwestern University를 공부할 수 있게 된다.  이 모든 캠퍼스가 수도인 Doha 교외에 있다.

다음, 대부분 명문대학의 무료 강좌가 늘고 있다.  Yale online: http://oyc.yale.edu는 여러 과정을 무료 다운로드 강좌를 (성적표도 함께) 제공한다.  iTunes U에서는 Cambridge, Cornell, Duke, Emory, Oxford, Stanford, UC Berkeley, University of Tokyo, Notre Dame의 강좌들을 발견할 수 있다.

이러한 경향을 무엇을 뜻하는가?  전통적인 입학절차에 따른 아이비 대학들, Stanford, Duke의 학위들은 이제 만족을 주지 못하며, 또한 너무 비싸다.  그래서, 얼리 액션과 디시젼을 늘리면서 가능한한 빨리 다양한 학생들을 뽑으려 한다.  또한 표준시험들의 정확도에 있어서 의문을 제시한다는 점이다.  이제 미국대학들은 세계로 뻗어 나가고 있다.  그래서 수요를 충족시키려 한다.  원거리 교육이 Yale 대학이나 Oxford 대학의 수업을 가능하게 한다; 그래서 졸업증서에 나오는 대학이름에 대한 수요를 충족시킬 수 있을 것이다.

 

The Future of a Post-Secondary School System Currently Under Siege

  • Current College Educational cost structure cannot be maintained
  • Making College Education Scalable
  • Current on-line educational resources are numerous and are set to multiply further
Guessing the future, even if the guess is well off the mark, kicks the brain into gear. Guessing at the future of post-secondary education, however, is more like getting the brain kicked into a very low gear. Current news is stark no matter where you look. Post-secondary enrollments continue to grow, costs continue to escalate, and demographics continue to change. Examining some of these criteria, and making projections from them, though inaccurate, just might prove useful in picturing the future of higher education and our place in it. In 1999 there were 15,000,000 students enrolled in post-secondary schools; today, this number is just under 20,000,000. Expect this number to grow steadily and indefinitely at a 4% annual rate. Consequently, all areas of higher education are under stress as classes become lectures and, gaining access to required or popular courses becomes ever more challenging (meaning taking 5, 6, or even 7 years to earn a bachelors will become more the rule). Furthermore, being taught by professors on the tenure tract will become rarer: adjunct professors and teacher assistants (graduate students) will gain an ever greater portion of class time. College costs continue to rise: between 1982 and 2007, while median household incomes rose 147%, college tuition and fees increased 439%.  The cost of higher education is already unaffordable to many families. Yale University, which sports an annual $51,000 price tag, gives financial aid to 70% of its undergraduates; its average institutional grant is over $26,000.  This cannot continue many more years into this century, even in institutions with large endowments. Demographically, female is outstripping male enrollment at many of the most selective schools (females are 51% of enrollment at Harvard, and 59% at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill). This trend will continue as we head into the 21st century. Additionally, 40% of post-secondary students are over 25. Trends also indicate that an ever growing portion of the post-secondary student mix will contain first-generation students, foreign students, and returning students. This is to be expected, as post-secondary enrollment mirrors the national population. Where are these trends taking us?  Undoubtedly, the Ivies, Stanford, and Dukes of the world will continue to be sought after. Reputation and need-blind financial aid assure this. For the vast bulk of students, however, most will continue to turn, in ever greater numbers, to the community colleges to begin their postsecondary schooling. More than 40% of US college students are now enrolled in community college. Ironically, because many classes within the 4-year schools are impacted, just visit any of the Cal State or University of California campuses (or just about any public post-secondary school for that matter) to confirm this, a number of four-year-college students are turning to community college to gain access to professors who teach, and to less expensive college credits. The big opportunity to address our post-secondary demands is and will continue to be distance learning-the virtual and scalable classroom.  As of 2007, over 4,100 of our 2-year and 4-year degree granting institutions offered college level educational courses. These distance learning courses garnered over 12 million enrollments. Outside of standard bearers of distance education: Devry University, Kaplan University, and the University of Phoenix, the number of ‘open courseware’ sites is exploding. Just go to You Tube.edu to get a sense of what’s out there, http://www.youtube.com.  Or go to ‘open courseware,’ at http://www.ocwconsortium.org  and get complete classes (videos, notes, and tests) from Johns Hopkins, MIT and Tufts (to name just a fraction of the contributing members). Certainly these are tough times for post-secondary education, but it’s usually within the cauldron of difficulties that alternatives arise that might revolutionize our efforts and free our minds to attain new thresholds of learning and productivity. Now is such a time. The traditional classroom within the century-old university structure is being questioned on all levels, and alternatives, such as community college and the virtual classroom, are forging forward. Change in post-secondary education is assured thank goodness. Ralph Becker Founder, Ivy College Prep LLC -------------------------------------- 어려움에 처한 대학교육의 미래
  • 대학교육 비용은 감수하기 어렵다
  • 대학교육의 대안
  • 온라인 교육의 확장
미래를 추측한다는 일은 비록 표적을 벗어날 지라도, 두뇌를 작동시키는 일이다.  그러나 대학교육의 미래를 점치는 일은 일단기어로 천천히 움직여야 한다.  현재 뉴스는 어디를 보아도 갑갑하다.  대학 등록은 계속 증가하고, 등록금도 계속 오르고, 인구 통계는 계속 변하고 있다.  이런 기준들을 점검하고, 적용함으로써 비록 정확하지 않을지라도, 미래의 대학교육을 그려보며 예측할 수 있다. 1999년에는 1,500만 명의 학생이 대학에 등록하였고 현재는 2000만 명에 가깝다.  즉 연 4%의 증가로 학생이 꾸준히 늘고 있음을 알 수 있다.  결과적으로 대학교육이 강사들이 많이 담당하게 되었으며, 인기있는 강좌들은 수강이 힘들어 지고 있다(학사학위 받기가 5,6, 혹은 7년까지 걸릴 수 있음).  종신 교수에 의한 강의가 드물고 외부교수나 조교(대학원생)가 수업의 많은 부분을 맡고 있다. 대학 비용은 꾸준히 오르고 있다: 1982년도와 2007년 사이에 중산층 가계의 수입은 147% 상승했고, 대학 비용은 439% 증가했다.  고등교육 비용은 이미 많은 가정에서 감당하기에 벅차다.  Yale 대학은 연간 51,000불을 받으며, 학부생에게 70%의 재정보조를 해주며, 그랜트는 26,000불이다.  이런 사정은 비록 많은 자산을 가진 대학일지라도 오래 제공하지 못할 것으로 예상된다. 인구통계학 측면에서 대부분의 명문대학에서 여성의 수가 남성을 넘어섰다(Harvard에는 51%, University of North Carolina는 59%).  21세기를 접어들면서 이런 경향은 계속될 것이다.  또한 대학생의 40%가 25세를 넘고 있다.  또한 1세대, 외국학생들, 복학생들로 구성되어 있다.  이러한 대학생의 등록을 보면 나라 전체의 인구 구성을 예측할 수 있다. 이런 추세는 어디까지 인가?  물론,  아이비 대학들과 Stanford, Dukes 대학은 끊임없이 인기이다.  명성과 장학금은 더 부추긴다.  그러나 많은 학생들은 대학교육을 community college에서 시작할 것이다.  대학생의 40%이상이 community college에 등록되어 있다.  반어적으로, 4년제 대학의 많은 수업들은 정원초과이며(Cal State대학들이나 University of California 캠퍼스를 방문하거나 어떤 공립 대학이라도 확인하라), 많은 4년제 학생들이 교수와 만날 수 있고, 덜 비싼 대학을 찾아 community college로 옮기고 있다. 대학교육에 접근하는 큰 기회는 원거리 가상 수업이며, 또한 계속 될 것이다.  2007년에는 2년제와 4년제의 4,100개가 넘는 대학들이 수업을 제공하였다.  이런 원거리 교육은 1200만 명의 학생 수를 기록하였다.  전형적인 원거리 교육 외에 Devry University, Kaplan University, University of Phoenix의 ‘open courseware’싸이트는 학생으로 넘친다.  YouTube.edu에서 감을 잡을 수 있으며, (http://www.youtube.com; http://www.ocwconsortium.org) 이 싸이트에서 Johns Hopkins, MIT, Tufts의 수업(비디오, 노트, 시험들)을 볼 수 있다. 이런 일들은 대학교육의 어려운 시기를 반영하지만, 이런 어려운 시기 속에서 이런 대안들은 우리의 노력에 대변혁을 일으킬 수 있으며 배움과 생산성의 새로운 문턱을 넘을 수 있는 마음을 줄 것이다.  지금이 그런 시기이다.  대학의 전통적인 교실은 이제 의문시 되고 있으며, 대안인 community college와 가상 교실은 전진할 것이다.  대학교육의 변화는 좋은 것임에 틀림없다.

Researching Colleges

The importance of researching colleges and how to do it.
  • Strategies essential in conducting research
  • Resources useful for the task
One part of the admissions process that is often a bit neglected, is doing the research on potential college fits. Many students, and their parents, pull together a preliminary list of colleges based mainly upon college ratings, rankings, reputations, and opinions; that's human nature. But there is more to the research process than graduating near the top of your class and immediately applying to Harvard, Yale, Stanford, and then UCLA and UC Berkeley as your "safety schools". Today every applicant to a selective US college is facing stiff competition; most knowledgeable students and their families recognize this reality. Whether you believe it or not, even if you're the next Albert Einstein or Marie Curie, it's not a bad idea to research colleges of interest.  Furthermore, while you're going through the research process, it is critical to prepare a list of "reach" colleges-colleges that will be a challenge to gain entry, "target" colleges-colleges where you stand a good chance of acceptance, and "safety" colleges-colleges that will admit you, with very good assurance.  This coming admissions season will be the most competitive ever. The demographics confirm it. So, looking at a range of schools, and really getting to know your short list of the most promising and appealing is not just a good idea, but an essential strategy for dealing with what's ahead. Beyond these strategic necessities, there are some other reasons why research is now more important than ever before. Even if you're lucky enough to gain acceptance into your college picks, tuitions, fees, books, and room and board are becoming substantial expenses. Even if expenses are reduced through grants, or 'in state' status, the time a student invests to gain an education is not trivial: nowadays, in many institutions, taking 5-6 years to finish school is becoming less and less unusual. So, not knowing what you're getting into before you get there is plain foolish. To create a preliminary list of colleges upon which to research, some key questions need to be answered: location/setting-which regions of the country are of interest--; campus life-what school size is appealing, is it possible to live on-campus?; academic resources and requirements-does the student prefer a specialized program of study, e.g. pre-med, engineering, fine arts, or liberal arts?; extracurricular activities-study abroad programs, job internships through alumni networks, theater or intramural sports...Answering these types of questions is a good start. One standard college guide, Fiske Guide to Colleges 2008, has a "Sizing up the Survey," which you can use to guide you through this step. Assuming your preferences have led you to produce a preliminary list of schools, and remember, this is only a preliminary list, you can always make whatever changes you wish, now you are ready to get started. The first step is to grab a reliable, current guide, and read through, completely, a description of the university in question. The guide I mentioned above, The Fiske Guide, is a good source for a number of the leading selective schools. In addition, a very useful website, "College Navigator,"  mentioned previously in this column, will also give you a lot of the basic information you need to determine how well a school matches up with a student's needs. Here you'll find general information (including the school's mission statement), estimated expenses (that are pretty accurate, as this site is the government agency that gathers the FAFSA information), financial aid, enrollment, admissions, retention (what percentage of students actually graduate in 4, 5, or 6 years), programs and majors (and the number of students taking each major), and campus security. With this information, you a have a good foundation, but you still need to get more information to gain a better grasp of the school. Go to the school's website and take a general tour.  Let's assume that Dartmouth College is on your list. Then you'll want to go to Dartmouth's general information site, http://www.dartmouth.edu/apply/generalinfo/.  Here you'll find all the basic information, but there is a lot more that might give you a better feel of the campus and the students. There is a virtual tour, both video and still images, and blogs by current students, to gain an even better insight into the daily life of a student. If you have a specific interest in a department within Dartmouth, you can also go to its news site and sign up for a newsletter: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~news/features/sites/ .  There's even a site for Dartmouth experts, with biographies, one of whom, David Kang, is a noted expert on North Korea.  One other area to examine, if you're looking at a specific department, such as Physics or French, is the list of majors and their courses. This will give you a good idea of the course selection and major requirements. If you have specific information you're attempting to glean from a site, and it's not readily found, you can always enlist Google University: (http://www.google.com/options/universities.html), which allows a student to a search over whichever university website she wishes, using the Google Search engine. Sometimes, because the breadth of information available on colleges can seem virtually limitless, it’s not a bad idea to pull together a checklist with the specific information you want to find out about various schools, before you begin an extensive search. This will also allow you to customize your search to specific interests, and make the process that much more focused. Let’s assume you’re interested in MIT, and have a strong interest in studying physics. You can actually take a MIT Physics class on their website. MIT is part of OpenCourseWare, a group of universities that supplies complete courses, videos of lectures, booklists, tests, syllabi, all free, on-line. If you mention, on your application, should you decide to apply, that you have already worked through their 1999 class on Classical Physics, it tells the admissions office that you have done your homework and are more prepared to take advantage of the full scope of activities that MIT has to offer. By the way, the link to the physics class is: http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/8-01Physics-IFall1999/CourseHome/index.htm. Your aim is to arrive at a list of 7-8 colleges (with the state university systems counting as one) containing reaches, targets, and safeties. Your research will lead you to schools, regardless of selectivity, that you like a lot.  I have had students that were so taken with one of  their “safety” schools, that it became difficult for them to choose where to go, when they were accepted to all of their schools. More importantly, don’t think this is a useless exercise. Researching your future is an invaluable skill that will come into play throughout your life (e.g. graduate schools, job searches).  So, do it well and look beyond the famous colleges: there are over 2,000 four-year schools awaiting your investigation. You might just fine some gems if you venture off the beaten track. Ralph Becker Founder, Ivy College Prep LLC -----------------------------------