Researching Colleges

Finding the Best Professors

When boiling down the college experience to its essence, students usually best remember getting to know one or two professors who were pivotal in sparking their curiosity and jumpstarting their motivation.

Richard Light of Harvard School of Education in his Making the Most of College, Students Speak Their Minds, describes the factors that define faculty who ‘make a difference.’ Professor Light interviewed over 1400 students to isolate his list of important factors


  1. Teaching precision in the use of language
  2. Sharing intellectual responsibility: expectations are that both teacher and student will learn through their encounters
  3. Connecting academic ideas with student’s lives
  4. Engaging students in large classes
  5. Teaching students to think like professionals
  6. Encouraging students to disagree with the professor
  7. Teaching the use of evidence: how to use evidence to make decisions and resolve issues
  8. Not being predictable: in class anything is fair game
  9. Integrating ideas from other disciplines


Undoubtedly, such a detailed list can help ferret out top professors. Princeton Review, though, in its Best 378 Colleges, boils faculty appraisal down to two key qualities: is the teacher interesting (a broad and subjective quality) and accessible. The review surveyed over 30,000 students across campuses and Lynn O’Shaughnessy, in her blog ‘The College Solution’ summarized the results noting professors in liberal arts colleges received higher scores than those in many private research universities (including the Ivy League), professors at private universities scored higher than those at state universities, and professors at ‘flagship’ state universities (e.g. UCLA, UNC Chapel Hill, and University of Michigan) ranked the lowest of all.

Obviously these findings throw into question the importance of brand name, or rankings, when selecting where the best educational value might be had.

Another Princeton Review (PR) publication, The Best 300 Professors, seeks to uncover who these paragons of professorial talent are. To create the book PR teamed up with Rate My and between the two identified more than 42,000 professors, of whom they then culled down to the final 300. The top five schools with the most top professors are not what one might expect. In ()’s is the number of top 300 teachers on the school’s faculty. Leading the list is Mount Holyoke, MA (14), James Madison, VA (11), Colgate, NY (10), William & Mary, VA (9), and Kenyon College (9).

One of the 300 is Joe Biel, CSU Fullerton, associate Professor of Studio Arts, who has taught at CSUF for over 8 years, and whose work is exhibited internationally. His capabilities can be gleaned from his students’ comments: “Joe is the man. He makes students want to learn, and he is extremely passionate about his work,” “If you don’t take his class it’s your loss. He’s that good,” and, “One of the best professors I’ve ever had.”

Another is Robert Winsor, PhD., a professor of marketing at Loyola Marymount University, who has published over 120 peer reviewed articles, many frequently cited in foundational research. He connects with his students: “He's hilarious, treats you like an adult, and really wants you to learn,” “There is no limit to what will happen in class,” and, “He makes you want to go into the marketing field!”

There are a lot of great teachers in America’s universities, and some very fine ones right here in your own backyard. During your undergraduate years it’s absolutely critical you connect with one or two of them, do some research with one or both, and learn the excitement of mutual discovery and exploration. It will make your undergraduate years unforgettable and your future more brilliant. 

Go Midwest Young Man

Horace Greeley, the editor of the New York Tribune in 1871 told RL Sanderson, a correspondent, to go West, ‘where men are wanted, and where employment is not bestowed as alms.’ Had Mr. Greeley been around today, and the question was finding solid educational opportunities, he might well have altered his direction to the Midwest.

Working with Professors

No matter how intelligent, clever, or driven students might be, the most important factor governing their success academically and professionally is how they interact with their fellow students and professors.

Andrew Roberts, an assistant professor of political science at Northwestern and author of The Thinking Student’s Guide to Colleges: 75 Tips for getting a Better Education, details how universities deliver an education. With tuition fast approaching the $50,000 mark at private universities, knowing how to navigate the academics, and most importantly, how to work with professors is invaluable.

Best Practices of a Student-Focused University

Though heavy research and publishing demands might constrain faculty teaching efforts, many universities are becoming more effective at encouraging undergraduate learning by implementing ‘best practices.’

Research into best undergraduate educational practices by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AACU)  yielded a list of ten: 1st Year Seminars; Required Common Courses; Learning Communities; Writing Intensive Courses; Collaborative Projects; Undergraduate Research; Global Learning; Community-Based Learning; Internships; and, Capstone Projects. The full list, along with a quick synopsis of each practice, can be downloaded at the AACU website:   

When researching a college, a rule of thumb is the more ‘best practices’ offered, the more engaged its undergraduates are and the better prepared they will be upon graduation.    

Of the ten best practices, five, which might be considered the paramount ‘best practices,’ are frequently found at many schools, at least many of the schools I have researched over the last year, and warrant more detail:

First Year Seminars: While some first year seminars might cover orientation or study skills, most are geared towards small seminar classes consisting of fewer than 15 students, taught by a professor, featuring specific topics or readings that require close examination, discussion, analysis, and extensive writing assignments. The small size encourages participation, frequent encounters with the professor, and again, lots of writing that is carefully developed and critiqued. The 2009 National Survey on First-Year Seminars notes over 87% of universities currently offer 1st year seminars. Brown University, for example, has dozens of 1st year seminars for its freshmen. Many state universities, especially Honor’s Programs such as Barrett’s Honors College at Arizona State University, offer first year seminars as well.

Writing-intensive Courses:   The importance of learning to write well, and extensively, cannot be overemphasized. Richard Light, a professor from Harvard’s School of Education, draws a direct correlation between the amount of writing in a course and its level of student engagement.  Student writing doesn’t need to be restricted to just a course, but can and should be interdisciplinary. Most universities also have writing centers that supply aid to all undergraduates in need: Swarthmore College’s writing center will assist in anything from a 5-paragraph essay to an esoteric physics research paper.

Undergraduate Research:  If you’re planning to apply to medical school, or most graduate programs for that matter, conducting undergraduate research is essential. Learning how research is funded, conducted, and published is fast becoming the rite of passage in many undergraduate schools. Most of the departments in Boston University offer numerous opportunities for undergraduate research. Pomona College and Swarthmore require all undergraduates to conduct independent research with a faculty mentors before graduating.

Internships: Gaining internships with companies or institutions prior to graduation is also fast becoming the rigor at many schools. Over 86% of Clarkson College’s (NY) recent graduating class participated in internships. Some, such as Northeastern (MA) and Kalamazoo (MI), have full-fledged coop programs that integrate work experience into their curriculum. In departments such as communication at Northwestern and Boston College, working in the media is expected by majors before the end of junior year. The more internships/work experience students gain, the better.

Capstone courses and projects:  Mastery of a subject is best demonstrated through an honor’s thesis, comprehensive exams, and independent projects requiring application of core concepts of a discipline. Reed College requires most its undergraduates take a comprehensive exam in their junior year followed by a capstone research thesis that is presented and defended before a panel of professors from Reed and outside universities. In essence a bachelor’s from Reed signifies capabilities similar to those of PhDs.

The more rigorous the ‘best practices’ offered by universities you have under the microscope, the better prepared you will be to meet and surmount the challenges encountered beyond college

Best results arise from best practices: they’re worth looking for in any college under consideration.

Tips for Successfully Transitioning to University

How does a fledgling student spend her time within a university to gain a better education?

Andrew Roberts, an assistant professor of Political Science at Northwestern University, addresses this very question in his The Thinking Student’s Guide to College, 75 Tips for Getting a Better Education, He begins by explaining how a university works,  how to best approach professors, and how to work within the university to derive the best education.

If you are about to launch your undergraduate career, read it. The tips surrounding ‘Choosing a Major’ alone are worth the price: sample a lot of departments, choose a major you love, preferably one of the smaller majors, make sure the major is well structured, write a senior thesis, and attend a departmental lecture weekly. Solid advice abounds. Here are a few choice portions warranting review.  

The first question all students need to know is ‘How does a University Work?” I suppose a mission statement is vaguely helpful, but to discover the true mission of anything is to follow the money. At many universities, that money is being spent on research. The reason is research, through awards (such as the Nobel Prize), publications, citations, peer reviews (p.11 Roberts) is easy to track and prestigious. As Professor Roberts makes eminently clear, universities have an insatiable thirst for ‘prestige.’ Teaching is not discounted, but it’s very difficult to measure its efficacy, or assign it prestige.

Teaching undergraduates is something most tenured professors perform, and some make considerable efforts to do it well, yet, most professors aren’t trained in teaching. Professor Roberts cites a survey indicating “only 8% of professors have taken advantage of research on teaching methods.” (P.15 Roberts)

Regardless of how attentive a university might be to undergraduate education, Professor Roberts tips you off on how to gain the most from the class offerings. During the class shopping period (usually the first two weeks of the semester) visit multiple classes and trust your gut on your impressions of the syllabus and professor. Search among the classes by taking a variety of subjects and venturing into areas that initially might not appear of interest. Steer clear of the big lecture classes (they’re often a bad value) and take smaller, seminar like classes with hefty writing requirements. Also, fill your schedule with as many upper division, or graduate level classes as you can handle. That is where most of the high quality teaching and learning takes place. One other piece of information offered by Professor Roberts is to ask some of your professors what classes they recommend: they know where the gems are hidden.

It’s important to get to know at least one or two professors well during your college career. You’ll invariably need a recommendation whether you go on to graduate school or join the workforce. The best way to get to know a professor is to show an interest in the professor’s field of research and study. Visiting each of your professors during office hours is one good way to build credibility among a department. Surprisingly, few undergraduates do this, and even fewer are prepared to chat about the subject material knowledgeably when they do show up. Doing this will show you have initiative and intellectual curiosity, two attributes always in short supply.  

A professor’s existence is her work. If you take an active interest in knowing portions of her research, and show a capable understanding and appreciation of her specialty, that will help you gain credibility and improve your chances for being mentored in independent research projects, getting recommended for internships, or even working with a professor as a research assistant. A lot builds upon getting to know your professors; besides, many are brilliant and intriguing individuals—making their acquaintance that much more appealing.  

Understanding a university, and how it works, and in particular how to develop a working relationship with some of its professors is probably more valuable than most of the courses you’ll attend. In any field of work, knowing the institution and the people is never an easy matter. Learn to do this as an undergraduate, under the tutelage of Andrew Roberts, and you’re likely to gain a better education in university and life.

The Allure of Out of State College Opportunities

Less than 14% of high school students attend college out of state. Cost considerations, proximity to friends and family, and climate deter many from going too far afield, but having an adventurous spirit might pay dividends in the world of colleges. Outside the golden state an assortment of public schools, private research universities, and liberal arts colleges seek to enroll Californians. These schools behoove your investigation.  

The RACC (Regional Admissions Counselors of California) is a cross section of regional admissions officers from such schools as the University of Glasgow (Scotland), University of Minnesota (Twin Cities), Lafayette (PA) and Northeastern (MA). Many have gorgeous campuses, competitive tuition, hundreds of majors, honors programs, non-impacted nursing programs, and even four-year graduation guarantees (such as the University of Minnesota). Best of all, they want Californians on their campuses.

True, some of the public out-of-state schools want to get you on to their campuses simply because you will be paying out-of-state tuition, and this can get expensive. Though, as mentioned in a previous column, through WUE, Western University Exchange, schools charge only 150% in-state tuition for Californians. Getting accepted under the WUE program at Montana State in Bozeman costs less than $8,000 annually in tuition, versus over $18,000 for full out-of-state tuition.

Several flagship public universities are already composed of substantial portions of out-of-state students. The University of Vermont, for instance, is 75% out-of-state students; University of North Dakota (a WUE member) 67%; and University of Colorado, Boulder, over 40%.  A number of schools in the Northeast and Midwest are joining Vermont’s lead in the search for out-of-state students because the number of high school graduates in their region of the country is declining. University of Massachusetts in Amherst, Rutgers (NJ), and SUNY campuses (State University of New York) are all increasing their portion of out-of-state students.

The flow of Californians venturing out is becoming pronounced. Last year Washington State, which has a superb pre-veterinarian program, doubled the number of Californians it enrolled to 132, while the University of Arizona and Arizona State each had more than 1,000 California freshmen. University of Oregon, a third of whose football team is composed of Californians, enrolled over a 1,000 Californians in its 2011 freshman class; that’s double the number from five years ago.   Some marquee schools have doubled their number of Californian enrollments over the last decade as well, including NYU, whose recent freshman class had 600 California students, along with Wesleyan (CT), and Williams (MA).

Private research universities and liberal arts colleges seek California students to secure a national body of students. Prestige factors into the equation. Case Western Reserve in Cleveland, one of the top research universities in the country, offered six figure scholarships and grants to California applicants over the last three years. Geographic diversity helps their recruiting and, possibly, their US News ratings. Coming from outside a school’s traditional recruiting range, renders you special. Lynn O’Shaughnessy in her second edition of The College Solution mentions that her Californian daughter enrolled at Beloit College in Wisconsin and was featured in a guide for prospective students; after all, if a girl from San Diego attends Beloit that shows the allure of Beloit.

The reasons to join this migration are as many as there are graduates from California high schools. Beyond the golden state there are schools that graduate high percentages of students in four years, have available seats in what are high-impacted majors in the Cal State or UC systems, and have programs or grants/scholarship/work study aid to offset some of the costs—thereby bringing many of their costs into parity with the ever escalating costs of California state schools. Don’t dismiss the entreaties beyond the golden fence: create more options and unfold to the undiscovered. 

Questioning the Value of the Bachelor’s Degree

The confluence of rising tuition, increasing student debt, and declining employment opportunities for recent graduates is raising questions about the value of a bachelor’s degree. These concerns have been around for years, but the good news is there are rays of hope in the form of tuition rates beginning to freeze or even contract. Better still, over the next five years, expect the use of online classes to snowball across the postsecondary universe. Institutions that fail to respond will, in all likelihood, start to fall to the wayside—unless the size of their endowments insulates them.

Since 1983, annual postsecondary costs have risen at five times the rate of inflation, meaning what had cost $5,000 in 1983 now costs $60,000. Consequently, over two-thirds of students have had to take out loans. Currently, the average student debt load is $26,000. Total student debt now tops $1 trillion dollars.

The United States spends more of its GDP on higher education than any other developed country, yet the US ranks 15th in the number of university graduates per capita. Worse, a federal survey discovered the literacy of college graduates declined between 1992 and 2003. Only a quarter were considered proficient in using the printed word to learn and solve problems. Almost a third of students had taken courses that required fewer than 40 pages of reading a term. 

During the fall of 2012, 40% of private universities saw their enrollment ebb, with over a third witnessing it dive by 5% or more.   By the end of last year’s admissions cycle, 15% of the colleges reported space was still available. In the public universities, state funding has dipped by over 10%, while tuition rates have risen into the double digits, reducing the number of high school graduates enrolling by 4% over the last two years. Even at community college, enrollment, which has risen 22% since 2007, dropped 1% last year.

To combat declining enrollment, the University of California recently announced a tuition freeze, with a UCI graduate petitioning to ban tuition increases on students already enrolled. The University of Arizona and ASU, after five years of increases surpassing 80%, froze tuitions. The Iowa Board of Regents, the Universities of Minnesota, Massachusetts, Texas, Austin, and New Hampshire all joined in freezing rates. On the private school side, the University of the South in Sewanee, Tennessee actually reduced tuition by 10% and Concordia University (MN) reduced tuition by a third. Duquesne University, a Catholic university in Pittsburgh, is discounting tuition by 50% for incoming freshmen to its school of education. Outside the most selective branded elite institutions, the days of unlimited tuition increases appear to be ending (though even the venerable Mount Holyoke, in MA, elected not to raise fees this year).

To address tuition costs, and impacted registration, colleges are augmenting their investments in online learning, especially through ‘massive open online courses’ (MOOCS) as a means to teach thousands calculus or physics. The ability to scale classes and courses can easily be done online. The University of California system through UC Online Education offers online courses for credit (for both UC and non-UC students). A coalition of western states set up the Western Governors University (WGU), which provides an enormous selection of courses and majors, tailored to the student’s schedule, with most students gaining a degree in two and a half years (with annual tuition under $6,000), rather than the six years which is the timeframe, on average, for only 57% to achieve a bachelors. MITx will be offering certifications in particular skills online. Khan Academy, an online free tutorial site, had over 41 million visits in the US alone in 2012, which speaks volumes to the efficacy of online educational delivery.

The existing higher education model is undergoing tectonic changes. The transition is already underway. If there is any place in the world that can shake the inertia of the ivory towers into willful action, it is in these United States. As Churchill remarked, “The Americans will always do the right thing…after they have exhausted all the alternatives.” We’re still exhausting the alternatives, but not for much longer.

How to Gain the Most from the Undergraduate Years


  • Karen Kelsky encourages students to be skeptics
  • Ask all colleges about how well their recent graduates have done
  • Don’t be ‘dazzled’ by college’s reputation
  • Students should become entrepreneurial

An article recently published by Karen Kelsky, a former professor of anthropology from the University of Illinois, while ostensibly tailored to graduate students, “Graduate School is a Means to a Job,” (Chronicle of Higher Education, 27 March 2012) is actually even more applicable to future undergraduate students. Ms. Kelsky is not shy about having students ask universities to prove their utility. Encouraging such skepticism should be lauded. No institution, no matter how august, should be charging $30-60,000 without being constantly questioned. Here is a cross section of some of her ideas, slightly modified for undergraduates.  

  1. If students are planning to enroll in a pre-professional track (e.g. pre-med), it’s absolutely essential to ask what type of record the school has for getting students into quality medical schools. Selecting, or being assigned an advisor, also needs to be vetted. How successful has this advisor been in getting his or her students into graduate programs, internships, jobs after college, or meaningful undergraduate research projects?
  2. Before accepting an admissions offer to a school, students should take time to review professors in key departments of interest, on This review should extend to the school’s majors, minors, honors, and independent research offerings. If the school under consideration is private, don’t be deterred by the sticker price; many private schools have an array of scholarships and grants to offset its higher costs. If a school’s department, facilities, and faculty are a good match, and its financial aid awards historically have been generous (which can be found on College Navigator), that school is a meaningful option in the student’s admissions process.  
  3. Don’t be ‘dazzled by abstract institutional reputations’ of elite colleges. Students should only be concerned with finding schools that have the best placement rates, either for leading graduate schools or jobs, or whether the school’s curriculum, faculty, and writing seminars truly teach vital communication and thinking skills. Parenthetically, most of the Ivy League faculties, according to, have significantly lower performance numbers than many of the liberal arts schools (such as Swarthmore, Pomona College, or Amherst) and a number of public schools as well.   Performance with its recent graduates is all that matters: reputation and brand are not all that important.  
  4. Students need to become entrepreneurial before entering college, or certainly soon after. They need to apply for as many sources of financial support as possible. They also need to realize as their undergraduate years unfold ‘the law of increasing returns’. Getting a summer internship, might then lead to a position with a stipend the next year, which might then lead to a meaningful research project, which will all build measurable experience on student activity lists over the course of their undergraduate years.
  5. While in college, students should take advantage of any opportunities to present their work to as wide an audience as possible. If any public speaking opportunities avail themselves, they should participate. Public speaking is a core skill for any profession.
  6. Students want to become polished and capable as they approach the finish of their undergraduate years. They need to develop a ‘professional persona’ that will establish them as ‘…confident, assertive, sophisticated, and outspoken.”  They will also need to banish excessive humility; ‘it inspires contempt.’ It also gets in the way of cultivating recommendations from key professors within the school; such recommendations are critical in future career or graduate school pursuits—they are the lifeblood of the undergraduate experience.

Admittedly, few undergraduate students will follow all or even a majority of the above suggestions. Reading them, however, and attempting to implement just one, might prove the difference in creating a productive and successful college experience.  Ms. Kelsky advocates students be assertive, self-reliant, and decisive. This will serve them well, long after their college years have ended.   


대학생활에서 최상의 것을 얻는 방법 

  • Karen Kelsky의 조언: 비판적일 것
  • 대학에게 졸업생의 결과에 대해 묻기
  • 대학의 명성에 눌리지 말 것
  • 기업가적 정신을 가질 것

University of Illinois의 전 인류학과 교수인 Karen Kelsky는 최근 기고 (Chronicle of Higher Education, 27 March 2012), “대학원은 직장을 위한 곳이다”에서 대학원생들에게 조언을 하고 있는데, 사실 대학생에게도 적용되는 글이다.  Ms.Kelsky는 학생들이 대학에게 그 유용성을 주저없이 묻기를 권한다.  이런 비판적인 질문은 정말 필요하다.  어떤 학교도 이런 질문에 대답없이 3만 -6만불을 받아서는 안되는 것이다.  그녀의 글을 응용하여 대학생에게 다음과 같이 권고하고자 한다.

  1. 만약 학생이 전문적인 pre-med과정에 등록하려 한다면, 그 학교에서 좋은 의과대학에 학생들을 진학시켰는지 물어야 한다.  어드바이저를 정해주는지도 알아 보아야 한다.  또한 상담교수가 대학원 프로그램, 인턴십, 직장, 리서치 프로젝트에 대해 얼마나 도움이 되는지도 알아보아야 한다.
  2. 입학을 수락하기 전, 교수 수준을 RateMyProfessor.com에서 알아보아야 한다.  이 리뷰는 전공, 부전공, 우등프로그램, 리서치 제공에 까지 이른다.  만약 사립대학을 고려한다면, 등록금 때문에 포기하지말길 바란다.  많은 사립에서 장학금과 그랜트를 제공하고 있다.  만약 학과, 시설, 교수가 좋다면, 그 대학의 재정능력도 우수하다(College Navigator에서 조사할 것).  그런 대학은 정말 선택할 가치가 있다.
  3. 엘리트 대학의 명성에 눌리지 말아야 한다.  그것보다는 졸업후의 진로 (대학원이든, 직장이든)가 좋은지, 대학의 교과과정, 교수진, 작문세미나가 진정 의사소통기술과 사고력을 발달시키는지에 더 관심을 두어야 한다.  첨가하면, RateMyProfessor.com에서 아이비리그의 교수들도 인문대학(Swarthmore, Pomona College, Amherst)의 교수에 비해 아주 낮은 평가를 받는 교수들이 있다.  최근 졸업생들의 결과가 중요하다: 명성과 이름은 그렇게 중요한 것이 아니다.
  4. 학생들은 대학에 들어가기 전부터 기업가적 정신을 가져야 한다.  재정적 지원에 대해서도 잘 알아야 한다.  또한 대학에 들어가는 돈이 ‘보상의 법칙’을 따라 나타나는지도 알아보아야 한다.  여름 인턴십을 한다면, 내년 학비를 조달할 수 있는지 살펴야 한다.  또한 리서치 프로젝트를 한다면, 수강과목 이상으로 할동영역에 경험으로 사용될 수 있을 것이다.
  5. 대학에 다니는 동안, 어떤 경험이든 자신의 일을 널리 홍보할 수 있는 기회로 삼아야 한다.  공개 연설의 기회가 있다면, 무조건 참여하면서 자신을 나타내야 한다.  공개 연설은 어떤 직업에서든 핵심기술이다.
  6. 대학을 졸업할 때는 세련되고 능력있는 사람이 되어야 한다.  ‘자신감있는, 확신에 찬, 세련된, 거침없이 말하는…’등의 ‘전문적인 모습’을 갖추어야 한다.  겸손이란 경멸만 불러일으킬 뿐이다.  또한 대학에서 중요 교수에서 추천을 받을 수 있는 길을 만들어야 한다; 추천은 직장이나 대학원 진학에 필수적이다-그들이 대학 경험에서 생명선이 된다.

확실히 대학생이 위의 모든 것이나 대부분을 지키기는 어렵다.  그러나 한 가지라도 실천한다면, 성공적이고 생산적인 대학생활을 누릴 것이다.  Ms. Kelskey는 학생들이 적극적이고, 자신감있고, 결단력있게 행동해야 함을 강조한다.  그렇다면, 대학생활을 마친 후, 평생동안 그들은 잘 될 것이다.

Tuition Free Schools to Combat Escalating College Costs


  • Span Liberal Arts, Fine Arts, Engineering
  • Work Study Options
  • Feature ‘Hands On’ Learning

While there is no such thing as a free lunch, there is such a thing as free tuition. A group of colleges offer students tuition free education with one exception: Olin School of Engineering has had to become only half tuition free as a result of its endowment faring poorly during the recent recession; it is, though, still a value at half the tuition price, and thereby warrants a spot on this list. The service academies (West Point, the Air Force Academy, Annapolis, the Coast Guard Academy…) are all free of tuition and all other expenses: they even give their cadets a monthly stipend; however, they do require post-graduate service commitments. The following ‘tuition free’ institutions, on the other hand, offer students the opportunity to study liberal arts, fine arts, and engineering, without a huge debt-load at the end of the experience or backend service requirements.   Let’s explore the schools by their curriculum.

Liberal Arts:

  • Deep Springs College ( is a two-year liberal arts institution, founded in 1917 and has only 26 students. Beginning the summer of 2013, it will begin admitting female applicants. The college is located on 5,000 arid acres, on the Nevada, California border. Tuition, room and board are free. In exchange, students work the ranch 20 hours a week. Most of the students, upon finishing their 2-year stint at Deep Springs, transfer to some of the most selective schools in the country. (A superb write-up of the school can be found in The Fiske Guide to Colleges, 2012.)
  • College of the Ozarks ( located in the southern Missouri Ozarks, offers majors in business, education and criminal justice. To offset tuition, the school requires each student to dedicate 15 hours per week in a work study program on its farm or in other workstations.  College of the Ozarks is a standard 4-year college.

Fine Arts:

  • Curtis Institute of Music ( is located in the heart of Philadelphia. If you’re seeking a degree in music performance and theory, and you are a top flight performer, this school warrants an application. Though only 4% of its applicants are accepted, should you be among this number, you will gain a superior musical education, tuition free.
  • Cooper Union (, in the Greenwich Village area of New York City, is well known for its programs, which emphasize design, in engineering, architecture, along with the visual and performing arts. The school has a lengthy history as it was here in 1860 that Lincoln’s speech propelled him to a presidential win. About 11 % of applicants are admitted.


  • Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering ( is located just outside of Boston in Needham, Massachusetts. It offers majors in electrical, mechanical, and general engineering. The school was founded in 2002, with a $490 million grant from the FW Olin Institute. In 2010, the year the school went half tuition free, 768 students applied, 16% were accepted.
  • The Webb Institute ( located in Glen Cove, New York, specializes in teaching its students how to ‘advance the art of shipbuilding.’ This is a 4-year intensive engineering program that features an annual 2-month internship (winter term) aboard a vessel. The school is tuition-free; however, room and board and extraneous expenses are not covered. In 2010, 73 students applied; 38% were accepted. Its only major is naval architecture and marine engineering.  

Gaining admission into most of the above institutions is, as you would expect, competitive. All approach learning with a lot of ‘hands on’ experience: Deep Springs you work the ranch; Ozarks, the farm; Curtis, you perform; Cooper Union and Olin, you participate in a lot of projects; and, at the Webb Institute you take an annual 2-month jaunt aboard a vessel somewhere in the world.  Best of all, however, each institution’s tuition (and half of Olin’s) is, as Peter Cooper, the founder of Cooper Union said, “as free as water and air.”   Ivy College Prep, LLC,, (714) 734-8100. Ralph Becker, a resident of Long Beach, has been counseling students for the last 6 years. A former Yale Alumni interviewer, he holds a certificate in college counseling from UCLA Extension, and has published SAT* Vocab 800, Books A, B, C, &D.

치솟는 등록금 피해 거의 등록금이 없는 대학 찾기

  • 인문학, 예술, 공학분야
  • 공부와 병행
  • 실습위주의 특징

요즈음 공짜 점심 먹기도 어려운데, 등록금이 거의 무료인 대학이 있다.  몇 대학들이 한가지의 조건을 달면서 등록금이 무료이다: Olin 공대는 현재 어려운 경제시기에 자산이 줄면서, 등록금의 50%를 받지만, 정말 가치가 있으므로 이 칼럼의 한 자리를 차지하게 되었다.  물론, 사관학교들 (West Point, the Air Force Academy, Annapolis, the Coast Guard Academy등)은 수업료와 모든 비용이 무료이며, 매달 용돈까지 있다; 한편, 복무의 의무가 있다.   반면, 다음의 ‘등록금 무료’대학들은 인문학, 예술, 공학대학들은 졸업 후 지게 되는 빚도 없고, 복무의 의무도 없다.  그러면, 교과과정을 자세히 살펴보자.

인문학 분야:

  • Deep Springs College ( 은 1917년에 세워진 2년제 인문대학으로 26명이 정원이다.  2013년 여름부터는 여학생도 받는다.  캠퍼스는 가주 근방인 네바다 사막에 5,000에이커를 갖고 있다.  등록금, 기숙사비 모두 무료이다.  다만, 일주일 20시간의 근로를 해야 한다.  대부분의 학생들은 2년 후 명문대학으로 진학하고 있다 (이 대학에 대한 우수한 평가가 The Fiske Guide to Colleges, 2012에 나와 있다).
  • College of the Ozarks (는 미주리 남부 Ozarks 에 위치해 있으며, 경제, 교육, 범죄학의 전공이 있으며, 등록금을 대신하여 주당 15시간을 농장이나 다른 일터에서 일을 하는 근로프로그램을 요구한다.  전형적인 4년제 대학이다.

예술 분야:

  • Curtis Institute of Music ( 는 Philadelphia의 중심부에 위치해 있으며, 음악연주와 이론의 학위를 원하고 훌륭한 연주가라면, 응시할 수 있다.  응시생의 4%를 선발하며, 여러분이 그 범위에 든다면, 우수한 음악교육을 무료로 받을 수 있다.
  • Cooper Union(은 뉴욕시의 Greenwich village지역에 위치해 있으며, 시각과 행위예술과 더불어 디자인, 공학, 건축학으로 유명하다.  1860년에 설립되었으며, 링컨의 연설이 대통령 선거에 이기게 한 유래도 있다.  응시생의 11%정도 입학된다. 


  • Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering ( 전기공학, 기계공학, 일반 공학을 제공한다.  2002년에 FW Olin 연구소로부터 $490million의 기부금으로 설립되었으며, 2010년에는 50%의 등록금을 받으며, 768명이 응시하여 16%가 입학되었다.
  • The Webb Institute ( 는 뉴욕의 Glen Cove에 위치해 있으며, ‘선진 조선술’을 전문으로 한다.  4년제의 집중 공학프로그램과 2달간 승선하는 인턴십 (겨울)을 요구하며, 등록금은 무료이다.  단지 기숙사와 기타 비용은 포함하지 않는다.  2010년에는 73명이 응시하여 38%가 입학했다.   주 정공은 해양 건축과 해양공학이다.

위의 대학들은 경쟁이 매우 심하다.  모든 공부는 실습위주이다: Deep Springs는 랜치의 일경험; Ozarks는 농장경험; Curtis는 연주경험; Cooper Union and Olin은 프로젝트에 참가를 요구한다.  그럼에도 불고하고 큰 매력은 Cooper Union의 창시자인 Peter Cooper의 말처럼 등록금이 ‘물과 공기처럼 공짜’라는 점이다. 

School Year Plan—Why the Type of School Year Plan might be important to you


  • Semester Plan
  • Quarter, or Trimester Plan
  • 4-1-4 Plans, How They Work
  • Block Plan
  • Special Plans: K-Plan

 “The Sizing up Survey” in the Fiske Guide to Colleges asks a number of preference questions to help students figure out good college matches: location, setting, size, cost, athletics, extracurricular, public vs. private, campus culture, academics, and ‘other factors.’ Unfortunately, in certain areas, especially ‘academics’, many students not only don’t have any answers, they don’t even have a clue what they’re looking for, nor do they have much time to contemplate what an ideal learning experience might be. One area to get a grasp of ‘academics,’ beyond whether the school has general education courses, a core curriculum, or distribution requirements, is to know how colleges divvy up their school year, and how these various divisions might jive with learning styles.  

The traditional curriculum, found at most universities-including 7 of the 8 Ivy League schools, is the semester system. Typically a semester is 15-17 weeks with each semester containing 4 to 5 courses. A number of these colleges start the academic year in mid to late August, but they do end the year earlier, usually around mid-May, allowing students to get a jump on internships or summer jobs. There also is a 2-3 week break around Christmas. A key benefit of the semester system is if students get behind in their classes, there is sufficient time to catch up. However, for procrastinators, the semester system can cover up a lot of waste and inefficiencies.

The quarter system, which is also known as the trimester system, divides the school year into three quarters, and usually has a summer quarter as well. Each quarter is around 10 weeks, and usually includes 3-4 classes. The quarter system, however, moves rapidly. Within weeks of starting a class, students are already preparing for mid-terms. Get behind or mess up an assignment, and there is not much time to compensate. All the University of California campuses, except Berkeley, are on the quarter system. Stanford and Dartmouth are as well, with Dartmouth requiring all undergraduates to attend at least one summer quarter sometime in their career.

The 4-1-4 program is the traditional semester program with 4-month semesters on either side of January, which is 1 month set aside to take one or two classes, study abroad, or perform an internship. A number of schools including Middlebury (VT), MIT, Williams (MA), and the University of San Diego have 4-1-4 academic years. One concern, which some students voice, is the costliness of the January term for, at the most, only two classes.

The Block Plan allots 4-5 weeks for students to immerse themselves in one subject. Cornell College (Iowa) adopted the block plan in 1978. Colorado College is also a practitioner. While some subjects such as computer science (particularly programming), social sciences, and humanities, are well attuned to block study, for math, science, or foreign languages, should students not understand a concept, or miss a day, they can get seriously behind, and with only 3-4 weeks, never catch up.  

Kalamazoo College’s K-Plan is a special course of study that features experiential learning, or "learning-by-doing." Nearly 20% of all classes, a significant portion of the coursework, are: internships and externships, study abroad programs, senior projects, and in service-learning, which is volunteering and working within the community. This takes what is learned in class and immediately applies it to the real world. Some students learn best through application—this is a good program of study for such learners.  

There are many approaches to curriculum at the university level. By the way, a list of the colleges which use these various curricula can be found at Considering which might best fit your learning style: semester, trimester, 4-1-4, block plan, or a more hands on approach to learning, where classroom theories are constantly being put to the test, warrants thought. If you find a university that acknowledges your learning style and builds upon it, you’ve probably found a good place to learn and succeed—and that’s what good college matches are all about.  

대학 학제: 여러분에게 중요한 이유

  • 일년 2 학기(semester)
  • 4학기(quarter), 또는 3학기 (trimester)
  • 4-1-4 학제
  • 블록(Block)
  • 특별: K-Plan

대학입학안내서 Fiske Guide to Colleges의 ‘대학 조사하기’(The Sizing up the Survey)에는 학생이 본인에게 맞는 대학을 찾도록 여러 가지 질문을 던지고 있다: 위치, 전경, 크기, 가격, 운동, 특활, 공립 혹은 사립, 캠퍼스 문화, 학업, 그 외 다른 요소들.  불행히도 학업적인 면에 있어서 많은 학생들은 답을 갖고 있지 않으며, 더욱이 각자가 무엇을 원하는지, 어떤 이상적인 교육경험에 대해 충분히 생각할 시간이 없다.  학교의 교양과정이나 핵심 교과과정이나 요구조건 등을 고려하기 전에 고려할 학업에 대한 한 영역은 그 학교의 학제를 아는 것이며, 어떻게 본인의 학습 스타일과 맞추는가 이다.

아이비리그의 8개교 중 7대학이 택하는 전통적인 교과과정은 2학기(semester)제 이다.  한 학기가 보통 15-17주이며, 4-5과목을 수강한다.  많은 대학들이 8월 중순에 시작하고 5월 중순에 마치며, 학생들이 여름 직업이나 인턴쉽을 가질 수 있다.  또한 2-3주의 크리스마스 휴식이 있다.  가장 좋은 점은 학생들이 뒤처지더라도 충분히 따라잡을 시간을 가질 수 있다.  그러나 미루는 학생들은 많은 시간을 낭비하며 비효율적이다.

쿼터제는 흔히 3학기제이며, 3개의 쿼터로 나뉘어지고 보통 여름 쿼터도 있다.  각 쿼터는 10주이며, 보통 3-4과목을 수강한다.  한편, 쿼터제는 빨리 지나간다.  수업이 시작되자마자 학생들은 중간고사를 준비한다.  뒤처지면 과제준비는 엉망이 되며, 회복할 시간이 없다.  University of California는 Berkeley만 빼고 모두 쿼터제이다.  Stanford와 Dartmouth역시 이 제도이며, Dartmouth는 모든 학부생에게 적어도 한번은 여름학기를 수강하도록 한다.

4-1-4프로그램은 1월 전후로 4개월의 학기제이며, 한 달은 1-2과목을 study abroad로 듣거나 인턴쉽을 하도록 하는 2학기제 이다.  Middlebury(VT), MIT, Williams (MA), University of San Diego등은 4-1-4 학제이다.  한편, 학생들은 1월에 2과목만 듣는 것은 낭비라고 말한다.

Block Plan은 한 과목을 4-5주에 집중하도록 한다.  Cornell College(Iowa)는 1978년에 이 제도를 도입했다.  Colorado College도 실험 중에 있다.  컴퓨터 공학(프로그래밍), 사회과학, 인문학은 block study에 잘 맞는 반면, 수학, 과학, 외국어는 학생들이 개념을 이해하지 못하거나, 하루를 빠지면, 뒤쳐져서 결코 따라가지 못하게 된다.

Kalamazoo College의 K-Plan은 경험 학습, 즉 ‘learning-by-doing’의 특성을 갖춘 특별과정이다.  모든 과목의 20%정도가 다음과 같은 것들을 요구한다: 인턴쉽, externship, 해외학습, 지역사회에서 일하기 등.  교실에서 배운 것을 바로 현장에 적용하도록 한다.  어떤 학생들은 현장에서 더 잘한다.  이 프로그램은 그런 학생들에게 잘 맞다.

대학에는 교과과정에 여러 가지 방법들이 있다.  대학의 다양한 교과과정에 대해서는에 잘 나와있다.  여러분의 학습스타일을 고려하여, 2학기제, 3학기제, 4-1-4제, 혹은 실습위주 제도를 시험하여 고려하길 바란다.  여러분의 학습스타일에 맞는 대학을 찾아서 간다면, 아마도 잘 배우고 성공적인 곳이 될 것이다—이 점이 바로 대학을 잘 고르는 것이다.

Cost/Benefit Analysis of a Harvard Diploma

  • A question about the importance of bachelor’s degree
  • Cost of attending Harvard
  • California Prison Academy alternative
  • The value of a bachelor’s degree

Possibly you were among the lucky 2,000 applicants, the elite 6.2% of the 35,000 pool, who received an admissions offer from Harvard this year. Yet, just how lucky were you? Recently, numerous articles have appeared questioning the value of any 4-year bachelor’s degree, whether from Harvard or not. One of the skeptical parties, ironically, is Harvard’s School of Education, which recently published a study that claims a four-year college degree isn’t for everyone.  Even more ironic, just as the best basketball players usually leave college, after a year, to jump into the NBA, some of the most successful Harvard undergraduates don’t graduate (Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg come to mind).

If you are wired like a Bill Gates or Mark Zuckerberg, you just might want to do a cost/benefit analysis on the prospect of matriculating into Harvard. For the upcoming year, the cost of attending (COA) Harvard is just under $54,000, with annual increases tracking at 4%, meaning your senior year COA will probably be just under $61,000. Even if your household income is between $60,000 and $180,000, and you have ‘typical assets’, you’ll still be asked to pay an average of up to 10% of income. Furthermore, attending Harvard, offers no guarantees once you graduate. Likely future plans will include graduate school, and that is a whole other set of costs. 

A recent article, ‘California Prison Academy: Better than a Harvard Degree,’ suggests an alternative: becoming a California prison guard ( There is one major difficulty, however, and that is each year over 120,000 people apply for a place in the Prison Guard Academy, which accepts only 900: this is an admissions level of less than 1%.   If you are the right material, meaning you have a high school diploma or GED, are a US citizen, pass the vision test (something I couldn’t), background check, psychological investigation, medical exam, and a written exam with word problems like this:

“Building D currently has 189 inmates, with 92 beds unfilled. Building D is currently at what capacity?”

…it might be worth a try.

The Academy training last for four months, and you don’t pay; rather, you’re paid $3,050 monthly to attend (versus the tens, if not hundreds of thousands you will have to pay for Harvard’s four years). Better still, upon graduation you have a job that comes with full health, dental, and vision benefits, and a base salary between $45K and $60K. (Average Harvard graduate starting pay is $49,897 and $129,759 after 20 years).  Vacation time, after 20 years of duty, is seven weeks. For Harvard graduates, 20 years employment gains, possibly, 3 weeks of vacation, if one can ever find the time to take them.  Yet, the crowning case to be made for the prison guard alternative is the retirement benefit package. You can retire at 55 with 85% of your final year’s salary and full medical benefits for the rest of your life.

When you consider that, in 2010, the average college graduate had over $25,000 in loans, and that student loan debt exceeds over $900 billion, higher than the total amount of credit card debt in the US, being a prison guard might not be such a bad choice. Is there shame in selecting a school (or an academy in this case) based on affordability?

Even more telling, just how good is an undergraduate education from most colleges, even Harvard? According to ‘Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses’, “…45 percent of US college students show “no significant gains in learning” after two years in college. (, 5-3-2011) Look over Harvard’s 1869 entrance examination and you’ll find it covered, in depth: Latin, Greek, Trigonometry, Algebra, Arithmetic, and Geometry (it was a given you could write a clear 5 paragraph essay). These days, every Harvard freshman, regardless of high school record, must take an expository writing class—solid writing skills, even at Harvard, are no longer a given. That will be $54,000 please.  


하버드 대학학위의 투자가치

  • 학사학위의 중요성의 의문
  • 하버드에 들어가는 비용
  • California Prison Academy고려하기
  • 학사학위의 가치

여러분이 하버드대학 지원자 35,000명의 6.2%인 2,000명의 엘리트에 해당되어, 입학되었다면 이 얼마나 행운인가?  그러나, 최근 여러 기사에서는 하버드이든 아니든, 4년제 대학의 가치에 대해 의문시하고 있다.  풍자적이지만, 하버드 교육대학 논문에서도 4년제 대학교육이 모두에게 필요한 것은 아니라고 발표했다.  더욱이, 유명 농구선수들은 대부분 대학1년 후에는 NBA에 가기 위해 대학을 떠나며, 하버드를 마치지 않은 유명인사도 많다(Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg가 금방 떠오른다).

Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg처럼 되고자 한다면, 하버드 졸업까지의 비용/혜택을 계산해 볼 필요가 있다.  올해 하버드에 드는 비용은 $54,000이며, 매년 4%씩 상승되어 졸업 때는 $61,000이 될 것이다.  만약 여러분 가계 수입이 $60,000-$180,000이고, ‘평균적 자산’이 있다면, 수입의 10%를 내야 한다.  그러나, 하버드 재학이 졸업 후에는 아무런 보장이 없다.  또한 대학원을 진학한다면, 또 다른 비용을 지불해야 한다.

최근 기사, ‘California Prison Academy: Better than a Harvard Degree’ ( )에서는 대안으로 가주 교도소 경비원을 제시하고 있다.  그런데, 한 가지 어려움이 있는데, 올해 120,000명이 지원했으며, 그 중 1%이하인 900명이 합격했다.  만약 여러분이 자격 (고교 졸업장/GED, 시민권, 시력테스트 (필자는 해당안됨), 배경조사, 심리검사, 신체검사, 필기고사 (예: D건물에 189명 수용 가능한데, 현재 92개 침대가 비어있다.  몇 명을 더 수용할 수 있는가?) 을 갖춘다면, 응시할 만하다.

경비원 훈련은 4개월이며, 돈을 내지 않는다.  오히려, $3,050을 받는다 (하버드에 지불해야 하는 수만 달러와 비교하라).  졸업 후에는 건강, 치아, 시력보험과 함께 45K-$60K를 받는다 (하버드 졸업생은 평균 $49,897부터 20년 후에야 $129,759을 받는다).  20년 재직 후에는 휴가가 7주이다.  반면, 하버드 졸업생은 평균 3주이다.  교도소 경비의 가장 좋은 점은 은퇴 팩키지이다.  55세에 은퇴할 수 있으며, 마지막 봉급의 85%와 의료혜택을 평생 받을 수 있다.

2010년 대학졸업자의 평균 빚이 $25,000이며, 학자금 융자액이 $900 billion이 넘어서는데, 이는 전 미국의 카드빚보다 많은 돈이다.  정말 교도소 경비가 나쁜 선택이 아니다.  대학이건 교도소 경비원 학교이든 유용성을 따른다면, 무슨 창피한 일인가?

더 나아가 하버드를 포함하여 대학교육이 얼마나 효과적인가?  ‘Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses(떠 도는 교육: 제한적인 대학교육)’의 기사에 따르면, 대졸자 45%가 대학 2년을 다닌 후에도 ‘…의미있는 교육이 없다…’고 한다 (  하버드 대학의 입학시험의 종류를 자세히 보자: Latin, Greek, Trigonometry, Algebra, Arithmetic, Geometry (5 문단 글쓰기는 최소한 있어야 하지만, 없다).  그래서 모든 하버드 신입생은 고교 성적과 관계없이 글쓰기 실력을 위한 작문수업을 들어야 한다.  그런데, $54,000을 내야 한다.

Profile of Frank Olin School of Engineering (Massachusetts)

  • Enterprising  Faculty without Tenure
  • Enmeshing Learning and Doing to Teach Engineering
  • Maintaining a ‘Creative’ Culture

There are outposts in higher education that defy classification and take unique approaches to education. Deep Springs in eastern California comes to mind with its select handful of students who attend for two years and combine deep analysis of such texts as Plato’s Republic with a daily dose of ranching and farming. Another one is Cooper Union in New York. Now, among this select group, with its first graduating class in 2006, is the Franklin Olin School of Engineering located in Needham, Massachusetts, next door to Babson College, the leader in undergraduate business entrepreneurship. All three schools were endowed by entrepreneurial men who intently made them tuition free.

Olin, however, does far more than give free tuition to attract the brightest students. According to a recent article in the Wall Street Journal entitled, “How to Succeed in Teaching without Lifetime Tenure” by Naomi Riley (November 20-21 Wall Street Journal) the Olin board of trustees set aside $200 million to create an institution to ‘give young engineers the skills to compete globally,’ by creating a ‘culture of innovation.’ The first thing the entire board decided was to not offer tenure to faculty. Richard Miller resigned his tenured position at the University of Iowa engineering school 10 years ago to become Olin’s first president. Mr. Miller said, upon his departure from University of Iowa, “There are more important things than permanent employment,” such as providing nascent engineering students with the education to be global problem solvers.

Olin’s recent graduates have graduated to work for a range of companies such as Microsoft or went on to PhD programs at MIT or UC Berkeley. All told, since its first class graduated in 2006, Olin has had 7 Fulbright Scholars, and around 18 National Science Foundation winners. That means almost 7% of all Olin graduates, over the last 4 years, have gained substantive recognition for undergraduate achievements.

About 18% of Olin’s applicants gain admission. Standardized test scores, GPA, recommendations are reviewed…then Olin does what the Math Olympiad does: it takes from its applicant pool of 900 students around a 190 finalists, and invites them to attend one of the two Candidates Weekends held in February and March. Over the weekend, the finalists break into 5-person teams for design and build projects, general discussion groups, and interviews with Olin student, faculty, and alumni. Of the 190, about 140 are offered admission for a yield of 90. Through this process Olin secures the most promising students academically, and socially. Engineering projects are usually collaborative. If an engineer does not have the social skills to deal with others effectively, it will drastically limit her effectiveness.

Additionally, Olin constantly scrutinizes its curriculum. Olin seeks a creative culture and nothing stultifies creativity like bureaucracy. That’s why Olin has no departments. Rather, the bedrock of studies is the “Olin triangle”: rigorous science, engineering fundamentals, and entrepreneurship and the liberal arts (and yes, these engineers learn to write well). Further, these three strands of the triangle form a fabric by constantly applying, to real world problems, what is learned. This is capped by Olin’s SCOPE program, Senior Capstone Program in Engineering, “in which students engage in a significant engineering project under realistic constraints of an actual client.”

Taking risks and making things happen is at the core of the entire Olin enterprise. And yes, you can get fired or get an F if things go badly. Yet, for every faculty opening there are 140 candidates. For each student who gains admission there are more than 4 who don’t. Despite these risks Mark Somerville, who joined Olin in physics, upon departing from his tenure track at Vassar, finds Olin “liberating.” There is an intoxicating zeal that emanates from a campus whose very purpose is to learn, explore and create.

Frank Olin 공과대학 (MASS) 프로파일

  • 영구직인 아닌 교수직
  • 배우고 가르치는 엔지니어링에 빠지기
  • 창의적인 문화창출

대학교육에 독특한 방식으로 운영되는 대학들이 있다.  먼저 캘리포니아 동부에 있는 2년제 대학으로 우수한 소수의 학생들이 농장과 목장에서 일하면서 플라톤의 공화국을 연구하는 Deep Springs 대학이 떠오른다.  다음으로 뉴욕에 있는 Cooper Union 대학이 있다.  이 부류에 속하는 Massachusetts의 Needham에 있는 Franklin Olin School of Engineering (경영대학의 리더인 Bobson College 바로 옆에 위치)이 2006년 첫 졸업생을 배출하였다.  이 세 대학들은 사업가들의 자산으로 운영되며 학비가 무료이다.

Olin 공과대학은 똑똑한 학생들에게 무료교육을 제공하는 것 이상이다.  Wall Street Journal의  Naomi Riley기사 (Nov. 20-21 WSJ), “How to Succeed in Teaching without Lifetime Tenure”

(에 따르면, Olin 이사회는 이 대학의 문화혁명을 도모하며 “젊은 공학도들에게 세계적인 경쟁력을 갖게 하고자 $20억을 투자하기로 했다.  첫 결정은 교수에게 영구직을 보장하지 않는 것이었다.  총장 Richard Miller는 University of Iowa의 영구직을 버리고 이 대학에 10년 전 부임하였다.  Miller총장은 이임사에서 “영구직 보다 더 중요한 것이 있다.”고하면서, 젊은 공학도에게 세계의 문제 해결자가 되도록 교육시키는 것이라고 했다.

Olin의 최근 졸업생들은 Microsoft에 들어가거나, MIT, UC Berkeley 박사과정에 입학하였다.  2006년 졸업생의 7명이 Fulbright 장학생이며, 18명이 National Science Foundation우수자들이다.  졸업생의 7%가 우수함을 인정받은 것이다. 

Olin의 응사자의 18%는 표준시험성적, GPA, 추천서로 뽑는다, 다음 Math Olympiad를 고려한다: 900명중에서 190명의 finalilts를 뽑아서 2월, 3월 두 주말동안 Candidates Weekends에 참석케 한다.  이 기간 동안 5명이 한 조가 되어서 프로젝트를 만들고, 토론을 하고 Olin의 학생, 교수, 졸업생과 인터뷰도 한다.  190명중에서 140명을 뽑고, 최종 90명을 선정한다. 이러한 과정을 통하여 학문적으로 사회적으로 가장 우수한 학생들을 선발한다.  물론 프로젝트도 중요하다.  그러나 공학도가 사회적인 기술이 없다면, 효과적으로 다른 사람들과 일하기 힘들 것이기 때문이다.

또한, Olin은 커리큘럼을 상세히 조사한다.  창의적 문화를 만들며 관료주의가 창의성을 막지 못하게 한다.  그래서 학과구별이 없다.  이 학교의 기반은 Olin triangle이다: 정확한 과학, 기본 공학과 전문성, 인문과학(공학도도 글쓰기를 배워야 한다).  이 세가지가 끊임없는 적용으로 진정한 세계의 문제를 해결하고자 판을 짜고 있는 것이다.  그래서 이 대학의 SCOPE (Senior Capstone Program in Engineering)프로그램은 학생들로 하여금 현실의 제약을 감안한 진정한 공학 프로젝트를 만들게 한다.

위험을 감수하며 새로운 것을 만들어 내는 것이 Olin의 전문성의 핵심이다.  물론 일이 잘 안되고, 결과가 F로 이 대학에서 쫒겨날 수 도 있다.  그럼에도 교수 한자리에 140명 이상이 응시한다.  이 대학에 합격한 학생은 4:1의 경쟁을 뚫은 것이다.  Vassar 대학의 영구직에서 Olin대학의 물리학으로 옮긴 Mark Somervile 은 한마디로 Olin이 자유롭다고 한다.  이것은 캠퍼스에서 배우고, 탐험하고, 창조해나가는 목적을 가진 사람에게는 매력적인 열정이 된다.


Knowing a College Well: An Exercise at Bucknell University

The summer is an ideal time to ‘test drive’ a college. Even though the bulk of your undergraduate years will be spent inside the classroom and library walls (at least they better be), knowing the campus and the community where you’ll be spending at least the next four years, possibly longer, is important. A good exercise to help you explore a school you’re serious about is to pretend you’re already there.

To begin, let’s choose a college. If you’re thinking of engineering, or chemistry, and have a penchant for liberal arts programs as well, Bucknell University in Pennsylvania might be of interest. We’ll want to gather as much information as possible by touring its website,, reviewing its course catalog,, researching its core requirements, and looking at its admissions rates, which can be readily found on the College Navigator site. 

The next step is to imagine you’re in Bucknell, nestled in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, a town rated 15th in the 100 best, small towns in America. You are now living in one of the five college-owned apartment buildings and you’re finishing up a meal at the award-winning Bostwick Cafeteria, which offers “local produce and lots of healthy and vegetarian options.” (Fiske Guide to Colleges 2010, page 83). You might take a stroll among the 450 secluded, hilly acres overlooking the Susquehanna River, walking by one of the 100 buildings, the recently constructed, $8-million, Breakiron Engineering building. The place has the feel of a country club, which isn’t too surprising as it’s the sixth most expensive university in the country.

Now it’s time to choose your courses and consider which of the 50 majors and 60 minors are of most interest. If it’s chemistry, there is a lot to consider: a chemistry major with a minor in biology, or possibly a combined chemistry major with a liberal arts degree, a five-year program. There are a lot of options to consider.  The university has writing requirements (all students are required to successfully complete three writing courses) and lots of undergraduate research opportunities; Bucknell will supply a stipend of $2,500 for the most promising ones.

Exploring the academic environment in greater depth, we discover Bucknell is comprised of two undergraduate colleges: Engineering (650 students), and Arts and Sciences (2,900 students). Additionally, Bucknell has no core curriculum, though the College of Arts and Sciences offers a “Common Learning Agenda” that consists of 6 courses of questionable efficacy. The student/teacher ratio is 11:1, not bad (and not too surprising in light of the generally small class sizes: 93% of the classes have fewer than 50 students.). Furthermore, the quality of the professors is high. According to the ISI On-line College Guide,, the professors like to teach, over 60% are tenured, and virtually all have terminal degrees (PhD). The faculty does teach all the classes.  The leading departments are engineering, computer science, economics, and chemistry. The acclaimed professors include Tristan Riley in sociology, Eric Tilman in chemistry, and Nancy White in Economics. You can do a fairly thorough examination of a portion of the faculty at ‘Rate My’,

Finally, the acid test of this exercise is to produce a concise list of the pros and cons of the school, preferably on one sheet of paper.

What have you actually accomplished with this exercise? Undoubtedly, it will make you an expert on each college you review. Furthermore, if you encounter the question about ‘Why Bucknell?” on the application, you won’t have any difficulty pulling together your facts. Should you interview at the school or with an alumni, you’ll be thoroughly prepared. In fact, examining any school at this level gives you the knowledge that few applicants might have. The admissions office will certainly be impressed by your knowledge, and awareness of the college equates with a high interest level. The school will know you’re serious, that you care, and that you’ll probably be a dedicated member of their college community. It’s a good way to gain acceptance.  

대학을 알자: Bucknell University

여름은 대학을 시험 운전처럼 알아보기 좋은 시간이다.  물론 여러분이 대학 진학 후, 강의실과 도서관에서 시간을 보내야 하지만 (좋은 일이다), 여러분이 4년 혹은 더 길게 보내야 될 캠퍼스와 그 동네를 알아보는 일은 중요하다.  대학을 탐험할 때는 마치 이미 그 대학에 있는 것처럼 생각하는 것이다.

먼저, 대학을 선택하자.  만약 공학, 화학, 그리고 인문학의 애호가라면, Bucknell University in Pennsylvania 가 흥미를 끌 것이다.  다음, 대학의 웹싸이트 (, 과목 카탈로그 ( ),와 College Navigator 싸이트에서 알 수 있는  중요 요구조건들, 합격률 등 가능한 많은 정보를 수집하도록 한다.

다음 단계로 여러분이 미 전국 최고의 100위 소도시들 중 15위에 드는 Lewisburg, Pennsylvania의 이 대학 안에 있다고 가정하자.  그러면, 여러분은 5개의 대학 아파트 빌딩 중의 한 곳에 살 것이며, “근교 생산물의 건강식과 많은 야채를 제공”(Fiske guide to Colleges 2010, page 83) 하는 품질상을 받은 Bostwick Cafeteria 에서 식사를 할 것이다.  여러분은 이 대학내의 100개 건물 중의 하나인, 최근 800만 달러를 들여 건축된 Breakiron Engineering 건물을 걸으면서, Susquehanna River를 내려다 보는 450 에이커의 한적한 언덕길을 산책하고 있을 것이다.  이곳은 마치 컨트리 클럽을 생각나게하는 전국에서 6번째로 비싼 대학인 것이 놀라운 사실이 아니다.

이제 50개의 전공과 60개의 부전공 중에서 교과목을 선택하자.  화학을 택한다면, 여러 가지를 고려할 수 있다: 화학전공+생물학 부전공, 혹은 5년 과정의 화학전공+인문학 등 여러 선택이 있다.  또한 대학은 작문을 요구하며(모든 학생이 3과목의 작문을 마쳐야 한다), 여러 리서치 기회가 있으며 좋은 연구에는 $2,500을 제공한다.

이 대학의 학문적 깊이를 따져보면, Bucknell 은 2개의 학부 대학이 있다: Engineering (650명), 인문학(2,900).  그리고 인문대학에서는 6개의 교과목 중심의 “common Learning Agenda”를 제공하며, 핵심 커리큘럼은 없다.  학생/교사 비율은 11:1로 나쁘지 않다(93%의 학급이 50명 미만의 소규모 수업이다).  더욱이, 교수의 질이 높다.  ISI On-line College Guide( )에 따르면, 교수들이 가르치고 싶어하는 곳으로 60%이상이 종신직이며, 전교수가 최고학벌(Ph.D.)이다.  모든 과목을 실제 교수가 가르친다.  우수 학과는 공학, 컴퓨터학, 경제학과 화학이다.  명성높은 교수는 사회학의 Tristan Riley, 화학의 Eric Tilmn, 경제학의 Nancy white 이다.  ‘Rate My’ ( )에서 자세한 조사를 할 수 있다.

무엇보다 이 시험운전의 가치는 한 장 이상의 찬반론을 제가할 수 있다는 점이다.

이 시험으로 무엇을 얻을 수 있는가?  여러분은 각 대학의 전문가가 될 것이다.  만약 여러분이 ‘왜 Bucknell?’인가 질문을 받는다면, 거리낌없이 말 할 수 있을 것이다.  만약 이 대학 선배와 면접을 하게 된다해도, 자신있게 답할 수 있을 것이다.  이 정도라면 어떤 응시자도 알지 못하는 정보를 지니는 것이다.  입학심사관은 여러분의 지식과 대학 관심도를 높이 평가할 것이다.  대학은 여러분이 이 대학을 진지하게 생각하고 신경쓴다는 점에서 이 대학을 위한 헌신된 학생으로 생각할 것이다.  그런 점에서 입학을 얻어 낼 수도 있다.


Retention Rates: A Critical Measure of a College Program

If there were but one factor I could review to determine the effectiveness of a college or university’s program it would certainly not be the US News and World Report Rankings, or the 25 and 75 percentile SAT scores of the incoming class, or even the number of Rhode scholars, or Fulbright scholars it has graduated over the last 10 years. Instead, I’d rather see the school’s retention rate: the number of freshmen students who return for their sophomore year at the same school. Experience tells us that freshman year in college is a massive adjustment. Those schools who can guide their students successfully through freshman year are gems, because a lot of students fail to successfully make the transition in college.

The national average retention rate for all two and four-year colleges is 66%: a third of the freshman class elects not to continue its studies, or transfers to another college. At the low end of freshman retention rate are public community colleges with 54%. At the high range are state and private universities with PhD programs, at 74% and 81%.  

A good place to gain a sense of a college’s retention rate is at College Navigator, a site well worth frequenting, When you go to the site, type in the name of the college you want to review, say Grinnell College (in Iowa), and then click on ‘Retention and graduation rates.’ In this particular case, you’ll find that Grinnell retains 93% of its freshman. That’s considered a high retention rate, which isn’t much of a surprise, as Grinnell is a highly competitive college; it admits 34% of its applicants. Grinnell’s retention rate isn’t quite up to the Ivy levels where: Brown has 97%; Dartmouth 98%; Cornell 96%; Columbia 99%; Yale 99%; Harvard 97%, Princeton 98%; and University of Pennsylvania 98%. As an aside, when you look at these retention rates, it’s not surprising to realize that transferring in to any of them is almost impossible—few students depart prior to graduation, so there just aren’t many openings to fill.

Examining retention rates is important when evaluating a school that’s unfamiliar. One example that I recently came across was New College, a small, public honors university in Florida. The write up in the 2010 Fiske Guide to Colleges noted New College (NCF) was much smaller than that of a ‘typical liberal arts college,’ and rated it a ‘best buy.’ Additionally, the article noted that NCF has produced 25 Fulbright Scholars since 2001, with a rigorous academic curriculum, and with 90% of the classes composed of 25 or fewer students. It sounded absolutely tantalizing. Yet, when you pull up New College’s retention information you find, it’s 82%, not horrible, but not particularly good, especially for a school this size composed of highly skilled students; worse, however, you’ll also discover that the ‘transfer out rate’ is 33% of the class, and each class has, on average, only 170 students. For a school this small to lose almost 20% of its class after the first year is troubling. If one is considering attending, one would want to know what’s going on and why is this rate so high? Realize that the University of Florida, Gainesville, a university with almost 35,000 undergraduates, has a 95% retention rate, and only a 6% transfer out rate.  

Are retention rates the Rosetta Stone in deciphering the successful schools from the average? Of course not, I duly acknowledge retention is but one statistic that indicates schools that take students to the next level. It’s not surprising that the most illustrious schools, the ones with the five-star reputations, have extremely high retention rates. Even if they were doing a mediocre job, the type of students they enlist would probably succeed just about anywhere. A lot has to do, not only with the quality of the institution, but with the quality of the student body it contains. I certainly, however, don’t discount successfully high retention rates; keeping 900 in a class of 1000 engaged and on track is a challenge.

Retention Rates

재학률: 대학 프로그램의 중요한 판단기준

만약 필자에게 대학이나 그 대학의 프로그램의 효율성에 대한 기준이 되는 요소를 물어온다면, 그 기준은 US News and World Report 의 등급이나, 신입생의 SAT 평균치나, 지난 10년간의 Rhode 장학생이나 Fulbright장학생의 숫자가 아니다.  필자는 대학의 재학률 (신입생이 다음해에 같은 대학에 등록하는 률)을 들 것이다.  경험적으로 신입생의 첫 해는 적응기이다.  만약에 대학이 신입생들을 성공적으로 안내한다면 이러한 대학들은 주옥 같은 대학들이다.  왜냐 하면, 많은 학생들이 대학에서 성공적으로 해내지 못하기 때문이다.

2년제와 4년제 대학의 전국적 재학률은 66%이다: 이는 신입생의 1/3이 대학공부를 계속하지 않거나, 다른 대학으로 전학을 간다는 의미이다.  Community college의 재학률은 54%에 불과하다.  높은 재학률을 보이는 곳은 주립과 사립대학의 PhD 프로그램으로 각기 74%와 81%이다.

대학의 재학률을 알아보기 적당한 곳으로는  College Navigator 싸이트이다. (  그 싸이트에서 알고 싶은 대학을 넣으면 된다.  예를 들면, Grinnell College (in Iowa)에 대해 알고 싶으면, 그 싸이트에서 ‘retention and graduation rates’를 치면 된다.  이 대학은 재학률이 93%로 높은 재학률을 보이는데, 아이비 리그 대학은 아니지만, 경쟁률이 높은 대학으로서 놀라운 사실이 아니다.  아이비 리그대학들은 다음과 같다: Brown, 97%; Dartmouth, 98%; Cornell, 96%; Columbia, 99%; Yale, 99%; Harvard, 97%; Princeton, 98%; U. Penn, 98%.  이러한 재학률을 볼 때, 이 대학들로의 전학을 거의 불가능하다-졸업전에 대학을 떠나는 학생이 드물기 때문에 자리가 거의 없다.

재학률은 잘 알려져 있지 않는 대학을 평가할 때도 중요하다.  필자는 우연히 플로리다에 있는 작은 규모의 New College를 알게 되었다.  2010 Fiske Guide to Colleges 에 New College (NCF)는 전형적인 인문대학들보다도 작으나, ‘best buy’에 들어 있다.  또한 이 대학은 2001년 이래로 25명의 Fulbright 장학생을 배출하였으며, 우수한 커리큘럼과 함께 학급수 25명 이하이다.  감질나게 하는 곳이다.  그러나 재학률을 보면 85%로서 나쁘지는 않지만, 작은 수의 우수한 학생들인 학교로서는 특별히 좋지도 않다. 한편, 전학률을 보면 33%이며, 한 학년의 평균수가 170명이다.  이 작은 학교에서 1학년 후에 거의 20%의 학생을 잃는 것이다.  만약 여러분이 이 대학에 지망하려 한다면, 이 대학의 재학률이 왜 낮은지를 알아 보아야 한다.  반면, 학생수가 35,000명인 University of Florida, Gainesville는 95%의 재학률에 6%만이 전학을 간다.

그렇다면 재학률이 평균이상의 성공적인 대학을 표시하는 로제타 스톤인가?  물론 아니다.  필자는 재학률이 단지 학생들이 다음해에 등록하는 통계라는 것을 인정하지만, 대부분의 5성의 명문들이 높은 재학률을 보이는 것은 놀라운 것이 아니다.  이 대학들은  평범하게 일을 한다 할  지라도, 이 대학에 다니는 학생들은 아마도 뛰어나게 공부할 것이다.  그러므로 대학의 질도 중요하고, 그 대학에 다니는 학생들의 수준도 중요하다.  그러나 대학 재학률을 경시해서는 안 된다; 1000명의 학생 중에서 900명을 진학시키는 일은 도전적인 일임에 분명하다.


The Common Data Set, a Useful Tool

  • Its Origins
  • How to find it
  • How to use it

Do you want to find out how many students transferred to Cornell University last year? Or, how many students received financial aid (institutional and government grants) at Pomona College, and how much each actually got? Or, do you want to find out the real student to faculty ratio at Dartmouth? If you do there are two places to go to answer many of these questions accurately and efficiently: College Navigator is one (and it has been profiled by me often. If you haven’t had a chance, you really need to go to its website and take a look at some of the schools you have under consideration. ( This is one example of our tax dollars well-spent; it’s truly a veritable goldmine of valuable college information.

The other tool of equal utility is the Common Data Set (CDS), and it is in today’s spotlight. The CDS is a collaboration among the vast universe of colleges and universities, the College Board, Peterson’s (an eminent educational publisher), and US News and World Report to standardize, improve, and make transparent information about higher education. In essence, the CDS standardizes, into a convenient 32 page report (approximately), a huge amount of data. Each college (most colleges-a word about this shortly) makes available its information on:

  • Average financial aid award
  • Break down of loans versus grants in average financial aid packages (very valuable when you’re attempting to figure out how much grant support your application may garner)
  • % of financial need met for typical student
  • Amount of merit money (if any) for affluent students who don’t qualify for need-based aid
  • Academic profile of freshman class—including GPA and SAT/ACT scores
  • Criteria for admission
  • Undergraduate class sizes
  • Accurate faculty/student ratio
  • Cost of attending
  • Retention rate and 4-year graduation rate

The quality and quantity of information you can obtain from a school’s CDS far outstrips anything you’d find in a standard college guide, such as Fiske or Princeton Review. Better still, getting a copy of the Common Data Set is as easy as logging on your computer and Googling up: Common Data Set <Name of School>.  In many cases, the CDS, as with Pomona College, will come up as a PDF file that you can easily search. Better still, once you’ve accessed information on Pomona College, you can then turn to another CDS for, say Stanford University, and the format is identical.

When I was doing research for a student wishing to submit a transfer application to Cornell University, RPI, and Northwestern, I was able to go to section D of the CDS for each of the schools and immediately learn whether the school accepts transfers for the fall, how many transfer applicants each had, what portion were admitted, and what number actually enrolled. It also clearly explained all the items required for transfer students to apply for admission. Before the CDS became available, this type of research would require, in most cases, me to call each individual institution and pray I might find someone in admissions who actually could supply me with this information.

There are schools which, for whatever reason, don’t make their CDS available. Two I’m aware of are Washington University in St; Louis, and USC. Fortunately, Amherst College, Northwestern, Penn State, Yale, Centre College, NYU, UC Berkeley, to name but a few, do.  Brown’s CDS even includes specific numbers on its wait list in section C2: 1,500 applicants were offered a place on Brown’s waiting list, 500 accepted, and 82 made it off it. Where else can you find such information? If you don’t review the CDS for each of the colleges on your short list for the financial grant information alone, you’re doing yourself a great disservice.

유용한 도구인 CDS (Common Data Set)

  • 출처
  • 찾는 방법
  • 사용법

혹시 작년에 Cornell 대학으로 전학한 학생수가 궁금하지 않는지?  아니면, Pomona 대학에서 장학금 혜택을 받은 학생수와 실제 얼마씩 받았는지 알고 싶은지?  또한, Dartmouth 대학의 교수 대 학생 비율이 궁금하지 않는지?  그렇다면, 정답을 효과적으로 찾을 수 있는 곳이 두 군데 있다.  먼저, College Navigator는 필자가 자주 인용하는 곳이다.  아직 접할 기회가 없었다면, 꼭 여러분이 가고자 하는 대학을 찾아보길 바란다 (  세금을 제대로 쓰고 있는 정부싸이트이며, 대학에 대한 값진 보고이다. 

유용한 다른 한 곳은 Common Data Set (CDS) 이며, 오늘 집중 거론하고자 한다.  이곳은 여러 대학들과, College Board, Peterson 출판사, US News and World Report를 결집하여, 표준화된 명확한 정보를 알려주고 있다.  핵심적으로 CDS에서는 표준화된 엄청난 자료의 32쪽의 보고서이다. 각 대학들은 아래의 유용한 정보내용을 담고 있다:

  • 평균 재정보조
  • 그랜트와 론을 분리함(그랜트에 대한 매우 유용한 정보임)
  • 평균적으로 학생들이 필요로 하는 재정보조률
  • 필요기준이 아닌 학생들을 위한 장학금
  • 신입생 학업 프로파일 정보-GPA, SAT/ACT 성적
  • 입학 기준
  • 학부 클라스 크기
  • 교수 대 학생 비율
  • 대학 등록의 값
  • 보유률과 4년 졸업률

CDS에서 얻을 수 잇는 정보의 량과 질은 일반 대학 가이드인 Fiske, Princeton Review를 훨씬 능가한다.  또한 이곳에서 정보를 얻는 일은 여러분의 컴퓨터에서 구글로 가서 로그인만하면 된다: Common Data Set <Name of School>.  예를 들면 Pomona 대학처럼 CDS에서는 PDF파일로 자료가 나타난다.  Pomona 대학을 조사한 후, 바로 Stanford University 로 가면 된다.

필자가 Cornell University, RPI, Northwesstern으로 전학가고자 하는 학생을 상담할 때, CDS의 D section에서 이번 가을학기의 전학생의 수, 전학 가능한 학교, 등록한 전학생의 수 등을 알아낼 수 있었다.  CDS 가 가능하지 않았을 때는 필자는 개개의 대학에 전화로 문의하면서, 답을 줄 수 있는 담당자와 연결이 되길 기도해야만 했었다.

한편, 아직 CDS에서 정보를 얻을 수 없는 대학들도 있다.  Washington University in St. Louis와 USC 이다.   Amherst College, Northwestern, Penn State, Yale, Centre College, NUY, UC Berkeley 등은 가능하다.  Brown 대학은 CDS 의 C2 section에서 대기자 정보를 포함시키고 있다: 1500명이 대기자순에 있었으며, 500명이 입학허가 되었으며, 82명은 포기했다.  어디에서 이런 자세한 정보를 얻을 수 있겠는가?  여러분의 대학 리스트에 있는 대학들을 CDS에서 찾아보지 않는다면, 본인에게 해야 할 일을 하지 않는 것과 같다.


How Effective is a College You’re Planning to Attend at Educating its Students?


  •  Effectiveness @ 1,500+ colleges
  •           Compares Colleges across Specific Criteria
  •           Yale’s Cost per Student information

Trying to figure out where you might get the best postsecondary value for your educational dollar just became easier. On October 7th, 2010, the website went live. It’s a free, publicly available, not-for-profit site that has no advertising clutter or strange distractions: just cold hard numbers to compare which colleges do a good job at delivering value for the educational dollar, and which don’t. The organizations behind the site are the Matrix Knowledge Group (an international consulting company) and the American Institute of Research (which specializes in educational research) who both share grave concerns about the American college system which, currently, graduates less than 60% of its students in 6-years, who are attempting to gain degrees from 4-year colleges.

A key question: what do you measure to determine effectiveness and value?

  1. Graduation Rate (graduating in 6 years)
  2. Retention Rate (% of freshmen returning for sophomore year)
  3. Cost per Student (total direct educational costs/# of FTE students)
  4. Cost per Degree (all direct educational spending to acquire degrees/# of degrees awarded in the same year)
  5. Cost of Attrition (costs spent on 1st year students who don’t return for a second year)
  6. Student Loan Default Rate (% of students who default within one year of when loans come due)
  7. Ratio: Student Loan Payments: Earnings of Graduates (annual loan payment/median annual starting pay of graduates)

As you review the seven categories above, you’ll note that each measures 4 goals that any effective postsecondary institution should have: Completion and Progression include #1 & 2; Efficiency, #3; Productivity, #4 & 5; and Gainful employment, #6 & 7.

You can, of course, find a lot of this information at College Navigator. Putting a number on the Cost per Student, Degree, and Attrition, however, can only be found at College Measure.

There are many ways to look at the information. One is to take a category: Cost per Student and see across the 1500+ college universe which colleges invest the most in the direct education of its students. Once you click to the chart (and navigation is very easy and straightforward on, you will discover that the college spending far and away the most per student on an annual basis is Yale University, at $142,195. The screen shot below clearly tells how the $142,195 is divided: ‘Instruction’ (Yale’s professors are some of the best compensated professors in the country), ‘Student Services’, ‘Academic Support’,  Operation and Maintenance’ (Yale has a huge physical plant to maintain-most of the buildings were built during the depression and require substantial maintenance-further Yale is building two new colleges, recently purchased land from a pharmaceutical company to literally double its campus size, and is about to launch an Asian campus in Singapore-a joint venture with National University of Singapore. Some of these efforts are not reflected in the Cost per Student number, but a good portion are), and ‘Institutional Support’.   

There is a glossary supplied on the site that clearly explains what each category measures.

What’s interesting about Yale’s $142,000 cost per full-time (FTE) student is that Yale’s tuition is just under $40,000. In essence, through its endowment, Yale is subsidizing each student attending to the tune of about $100,000 per year. Additionally, if a student’s HH Income is less than $200,000, the family pays only 10% of its income towards tuition, a discount of $20,000 off the sticker price. Based on this information, along with this information, it’s not surprising so many students are banging down the door to get in.

Obviously, the very selective schools have an appeal and value all their own. There are a lot of schools you might want to evaluate using this tool. You need to be a discerning customer. The costs of not doing your homework are just too high. 

내가 입학하려는 대학은 교육에 얼마나 효과적인가?


CollegeMeasure.org에서는 1,500 이상의 대학을 평가한다.

여러 특정 기준들을 비교하자

예일대의 학생 비용의 정보를 살펴보자

여러분이 대학교육을 위해 투자하는 달러가 얼마나 효과적으로 쓰이는지 알아보자.  2010년 10월7일부터 CollegeMeasure.org가 나왔다.  이곳은 비영리이지만, 광고나 방해물이 없다: 단지 대학이 돈을 잘 쓰고 있는지를 비교하는 딱딱한 숫자들만 나열되어 있다.  Matrix Knowledge Group(국제컨설팅회사)와 American Institute of Research(교육리서치 전문)기관이 미국 대학에서 6년 만에 겨우 60%의 졸업률을 보이는 현상에 관심을 갖고 이 싸이트를 만들었다. 

주요 질문들: 교육의 효과와 가치평가

  1. 졸업률(6년안)
  2. 보유률(1학년의 재등록률)
  3. 학생당 드는 돈 (총 교육비/전일제 학생수)
  4. 학위당 드는 돈(학위취득에 쓰인 돈/학위자 수)
  5. 손실값 (재등록하지 않는 신입생에게 든 돈)
  6. 학생융자 체납률(1년안에 체납되는 비율)
  7. 학생융자할부금 : 졸업생의 수입 (년간 융자환원금/졸업생의 수입 중간가)

위의 7가지 조항을 보면, 교육 효율성에 따라 4가지 목표를 세울 수 있다: #1 & #2는 완성과 진보; #3 는 효율성; #4 & #5는 생산성; #6 & #7은 수익성있는 취업이다.

물론, College Navigator에서도 이런 정보를 찾을 수 있지만, 학생에 드는 돈, 학위에 드는 돈, 손실비용은 College Measure에서만 알 수 있다.

이 정보를 살펴보는 2가지 방법이 있다.  먼저, 학생당 드는 돈을 1500개 이상의 대학별로 비교하며, 어느 대학이 교육비를 가장 많이 투자하는 지 알 수 있다.  차트 (를 클릭하기만 하면 된다.  예일대는 $142,195이다.  다음, 이 돈이 어떻게 나누어 지는지 알 수 있다: 수업(예일대의 교수 월급은 전국 최고), 학생써비스, 학업보조, 학교유지비(예일은 대부분의 건물이 공항기에 지어졌으며, 유지비가 심각하다; 현재 제약회사에서 땅을 구입하여 현 캠퍼스의 2배의 크기로 두 대학을 짓고 있다; 또한 싱가폴에 National University of Singapore와 합작으로 아시아 캠퍼스를 시작했다.  이러한 일들은 학생비용에 나타나지 않지만 큰 비중이다.), 그리고 대학보조비이다.

각 부문이 어떻게 측정되는지 싸이트를 참고하면 된다.

 (e.g.,Website information in English)

흥미있는 사실은 예일대의 전일제 학생당 비용이 $142,000인데, 등록금은 $40,000이하이다.  핵심은 대학자산이다.  예일대는 매년 학생 일인당 $1000,000을 보조하는 것이다.  추가로 HH수입이 가구당 $100,000이하이면, 수입의 10%만 내고, 등록금은 $20,000을 할인해 준다.    그러므로 많은 학생들이 입학하고자 예일의 문을 두드리는 것은 당연하다.

물론, 명문대학들은 이 정보에 대해 항소를 하며, 스스로 평가할 것이다.  어쨌든, 이 도구를 사용하여 많은 대학들을 평가할 수 있다.  그러므로 분별력있는 소비자가 되는 것이다.  즉, 단지 숙제를 안한다면, 치르는 값은 너무 높은 것이다.

Bellwethers of Ivy Quality

  • The website “What they will Learn” and the importance of a core curriculum
  • site’s ranking of Ivy League professorial staff teaching
  • and the politicization of the classroom

How much would you be willing to pay to attend a school that had no official general education requirement (or, possibly had one or two areas spottily covered) across the following subject areas: composition; literature; foreign language; US government and history; economics; mathematics and; science?  Posed a little differently, assume you were selecting a high school and it didn’t require English (writing), history, math, science, foreign language, or literature. How much would you be willing to pay to go to such a school?  A better question is how much money would you pay to avoid going to the school?   

No one, currently, is paying money to avoid going to Ivy Leagues schools. Yet, if you examine their curriculum, teaching quality, and freedom of inquiry in the classroom, you might wonder if such a scenario might be a reality in the future.

 An examination of the curricula of the schools can be found at the site ‘What will they Learn?’ On site is a letter from the former Dean of Harvard, Harry Lewis:  “On some campuses, it doesn’t matter at all what courses are chosen, as long as they are in the right categories…At its best, general education is about the unity of knowledge, not about distributed knowledge. Not about spreading courses around, but about making connections between different ideas.” The site then grades each campus’s core curriculum.


Brown                                                                    F

Cornell                                                                   F

Columbia                                                               B

Dartmouth                                                            C

Harvard                                                                 D

University of Pennsylvania                           D

Princeton                                                              C

Yale                                                                         F


Turning to another study regarding the quality of teaching, a recent report from the Center of College Affordability and Productivity compiled reviews from ‘Rate My’ of professors at 610 universities. No Ivy League school ranked in the top 100:

 QUALITY OF TEACHING (ranking of 610 universities):

111. Princeton University

152. Columbia University

187. University of Pennsylvania

196. Brown University

213. Yale University

247. Harvard University

294. Dartmouth College

414. Cornell University

Details are at “Are Ivy League Professors Good Teachers? By Lynn O'Shaughnessy” Some might discredit these findings as students might skew results if they have a vendetta against a certain professor, but this sample size is too large to be easily manipulated by students or others. (it is the site of the ISI which reviews, in detail, the curriculum and teaching at over 250 colleges and universities) gives campuses traffic light ratings based on how ‘politicized’ the curriculum is. Specifically: “If a school’s American history course casts the Founding in a dark light, pushes socialistic views of the economy, or claims that the Cold War was a U.S. scheme to rule the world, it is politicized.” If the curriculum is considered highly politicized it receives a red; mildly, a yellow; and open to free inquiry, a green light. 


Princeton                                                                Green

Harvard                                                                   Yellow

Dartmouth                                                             Yellow

Brown                                                                      Red

Columbia                                                                Yellow

University of Pennsylvania                            Yellow

Cornell                                                                    Yellow

Yale                                                                         Yellow

Three different studies covering the scope of core curricula, the quality of the teaching, and the politicization of the classroom across some of the most selective schools in the country come up with alarming findings. Taking Brown as an example, it gets an “F” for its general educational program (it doesn’t have one); barely places in the top third among the 600 schools sampled in quality of teaching; and gets a red light for having an extremely politicized classroom.  If Brown were a student, would you accept it? Ironically, during the recent admissions cycle it accepted less than 14% of its applicants. The recent round of early decision applicants increased over 20%. 

Don’t misinterpret this article. There are huge swathes of academic excellence throughout the Ivy League, if you know where to find them. You need to do your homework before you attend, to discover what it is you want to get out of a university. Learn about the best courses, the best professors, and the top majors Do not go in passively expecting to be served up excellence. Even in the venerable Ivy League that is a possible recipe for disaster.

 아이비 대학의 우수성을 알아보

“What they will learn”싸이트에서 알아보는 핵심교과목의 중요

“”에서 아이비 대학 교수 등급 알아보

“”에서 알아보는 교실의 정치

 여러분이라면 일반 교양과목 (작문, 문학, 외국어, 미국정치와 역사, 경제, 수학, 과학)이 빠진 (혹은 한 두 과목만 수강) 학교에 돈을 내고 다니겠는가?  달리 말해서, 영어, 역사, 수학 과학, 외국어나 문학을 가르치지 않는 학교에 다니겠는가?  이런 대학에 등록금을 내겠는가?  아니면, 이런 대학에 안 다니기 위해 다른 대학에 돈을 내겠는가?

 한편, 아이비 대학에 다니기 위해 기꺼이 돈을 내지 않을 사람이 없다.  그러나, 만약 교과목, 교수의 질, 교수의 자율성을 따져 본다면, 고개를 갸우뚱할 수 밖에 없다.

 먼저, 교과목에 대해 알아보기 위해 “What will they Learn?”( 싸이트를 조사하자.  그 곳에서 전 하버드 교무처장이었던 Harry Lewis의 글, “어떤 캠퍼스에서든, 학생들이 바른 선택을 한다면, 어떤 과목이든 상관없다…즉, 일반 교양과목은 분산된 지식이 아닌 지식의 결집이다.  과목만 나열하는 것이 아닌, 여러 다른 사상들을 연결해야 한다.”  이 싸이트에서는 대학들의 핵심 교과목의 점수를 다음과 같이 주고 있다.

 핵심 교과목 점수:

-Brown: F

-Cornell: F

-Columbia: B

-Dartmouth: C

-Harvard: D

-University of Pennsylvania: D

-Princeton: C

-Yale: F

 다음, 교수의 질에 관한 연구는 ‘Rate My’에 나와 있는 Center of College Affordability and Productivity에서 조사한 610개 대학들의 교수 질을 살펴볼 수 있다.  100등 안에 든 아이비 대학이 없다.

 교수의 (610 대학 중에서)

111. Princeton University

152. Columbia University

187. University of Pennsylvania

196. Brown University

213. Yale University

247. Harvard University

294. Dartmouth College

414. Cornell University

또한 Lynn O’Shaughnessy의 “아이비 대학 교수들은 좋은 교사인가?” ( )의 글에서도 알 수 있다.  물론 어떤 학생이 특정 교수와 반목관계에서 나쁜 평가를 내릴 수 있지만, 자료의 샘플량이 매우 커서 이러한 영향은 배제할 수 있다.

다음,이 싸이트에서는 250여 개의 대학들의 수업과 교과목을 평가하고 있다)싸이트는 과목의 정치화 정도를 신호등 불로 나타내고 있다.  예를 들면, “미국 역사 과목에서 정착단계를 경제적인 사회주의적인 견해에 따르고, 냉전이 미국이 세계를 지배하려는 음모라고 주장한다면 이 과목은 정치화되었다.” 그래서 과목이 매우 정치화되었다면; 빨강, 보통은 노랑; 자유 토론이 가능하다면 녹색신호등이다.

교실의 정치

Princeton: 녹색

Harvard: 노랑

Dartmouth: 노랑

Brown: 빨강

Columbia: 노랑

University of Pennsylvania: 노랑

Cornell: 노랑

Yale: 노랑

 위의 세가지 기준으로 명문대학들의 놀라운 평가를 할 수 있다.  브라운 대학을 예를 들면, 일반 교양과목에서 F (한과목도 없기 때문), 교수의 질에서 겨우 196등이며, 교실의 정치화에서는 빨강불이다.  여러분은 브라운 대학에 가겠는가?  풍자적이지만, 이 대학은 입학률이 14%이하이며, 응시자 수는 얼리 디시젼에서 20%이상이 증가했다.

이 기사를 잘못 해석하지는 말자.  아이비 대학의 학문 우수성을 찾을 수 있다면, 다양한 면에서 찾을 수 있다.  그러나 여러분이 대학에 들어가기 전에 대학을 나올 때 무엇을 원하는지를 생각해야 한다.  최고의 교과목, 최고의 교수, 최고의 전공을 알아보자.  무조건 최고의 서비스를 받을 것을 기대하지 말자.  대단한 아이비 대학 일지라도 여러분에게 재앙일 수 있다.


College Research on the Web

  • College Navigator Useful for the Basic Information
  • gives us a Community of Reviews to Consider
Among the many college information websites, several, such as the College Navigator, from the National Center of Educational Statistics, with its extensive enrollment and financial aid information, and the College Board site with its college selection tools and college major research information, are stalwarts. Of course if you're interested in a specific school, its website is a good starting point. Many have links to the school's newspaper, student blogs (one of my favorites is a Dartmouth blogger who explains everything from study abroad opportunities to Dartmouth's "D-Plan", take a look at ), curriculum details, and the biographies of key faculty.  There is, however, a new site worth checking out: ( Even though it's still in beta, its videos alone can give a prospective student a real sense of the school and the students who attend it. That, however, barely touches the surface. Walter Mossberger, in his review of in the 20 February 2009 Wall Street Journal, called it a "college-information resource built for the age of You Tube and Facebook." ( 23 February 2009). Besides a lot of videos, contains forums for general questions you might have about the admissions process and specific questions about a campus. The site has student sponsors on 300 campuses actively soliciting and posting reviews, interviews and information. Founded by a 26 year-old, former publisher of college guides, now claims to have over 15,000 student/contributors. Best of all, because the site is supported by advertisers (don't worry, ads don't interfere with the user experience), is free. The site contains an easy-to-use, powerful search engine, which can quickly access the information you need. If you're more traditional, and want to search for articles on specific topics, you might want to begin by scanning the topics in the left hand column categories on college admissions, financial aid, internships and jobs, college life, or study abroad. If you do a search over Reed College in Portland, Oregon, you'll come across: 79 student reviews, 19 photos, and 27 videos. On the Reed initial screen is a summary of the school: "While the workload will drive most students to the brink of insanity, the academic environment at Reed is extremely supportive..." After the summary you'll find a review, compiled by the editors at, which pieces together portions from the student reviews. At the bottom are pertinent quotes from various student reviews. It's also easy to get basic information about the school in the 'school statistics' section for each college. It contains information on admissions, the student body composition, and when to apply. There is also a quick ranking of the college (from 10, the highest, to 1) by: professor accessibility, culture, intellectual life, campus safety, and several others. The screen also supplies a list of similar colleges that you might want to consider. The site is not perfect by any means. College coverage is still limited; just over 300 colleges are covered. There are over 3,400 four-year institutions, so it's less than 10% of the way there. As yet, you cannot generate side-by side comparisons of schools. What it does deliver, is current student evaluations of schools in a lively forum of photos and videos. You can also band together with like minded students to review and talk about various schools. If you're considering one of the schools well-represented on the site, like Yale for example, you owe it to yourself to view some video-interviews of current students talking about everything from the recent election to social life. They tell you a lot about a cross section of the students on campus, and what these students consider important. Outside of a personal visit, I can't think of a better way to get a truer sense of a campus. Ralph Becker Founder, Ivy College Prep LLC -------------------------------------- 인터넷에서 대학 조사하기
  • 기본 정보에 유용한 College Navigator
  • 대학 환경에 대한 정보를 주는
많은 대학정보 웹싸이트 중에서 많은 등록인구와 재정정보가 뛰어난 교육 통계 센터의 College Navigator( 와 대학선택 도구, 전공찾기가 우수한 College Board 싸이트는 단연 돋보인다. (  물론, 여러분이 특정 대학에 관심이 있다면, 그 학교의 웹싸이트가 좋은 출발점이다.  많은 학교들이 학교신문, 학생 블로그, 자세한 교과과정, 교수진의 이력을 싣고 있다.  (필자는 다트머스 대학의 해외교환 프로그램이 D-Plan을 자세히 소개하는 Dartmouth blogger:를 애용한다).  한편, 새롭게 등장한 (도 참고할 가치가 있다.  이 싸이트는 아직은 2위이지만, 재학생들과 학교에 대한 진면목을 보여주는 비디오를 담고 있다. Walter Mossberger는 Wall Street Journal (2월 20일 2009)에서 Unigo.com에 대해서”You Tube and Facebook세대를 위한 대학 정보 공급원”으로 평가했다. ( 23 February 2009).  비디오 뿐만 아니라, Unigo.com은 대학입학 과정과 캠퍼스에 대한 특정질문이나 일반적 질문들을 위한 포럼의 장도 있다.  300개의 캠퍼스가 활발하게 참여하여 논평, 인터뷰, 정보를 싣고 있다.  26세의 전 대학가이드 편집장에 의해 만들어진 Unigo.com은 15,000명 이상의 학생/후원자들이 참여한다고 한다.  무엇보다도 이 싸이트는 광고(별로 방해가 되지 않으니 안심할 것)에 운영되므로 공짜이다. 또한 이 싸이트는 필요로 하는 정보를 쉽게 찾을 수 있게 편리한 search engine을 이용한다.  여러분이 특정 주제의 기사를 찾고 싶다면, 왼쪽 칼럼 부분에서 대학입학, 재정보조, 인턴쉽과 직업, 대학생활, 해외공부에 대해 찾을 수 있다. 만약 Reed College에 대해 알고 싶다면, 학생 79명의 경험담, 19개의 사진, 27개의 비디오 자료를 찾을 수 있다.  이 대학의 첫 장면은 대학을 잘 말해 주고 있다:”대부분의 학생들이 학업에 지쳐있을 때, Reed의 공부환경은 절대적으로 후원적이다….” 그 다음에는 편집자들의 논평이 학생들의 논고와 함께 나타난다.  아래 부분에는 학생들의 논고의 인용문이 나타난다. 또한 각 대학의 기본 자료는 ‘학교 통계자료’ 부분에서 찾을 수 있다.  입학의 정보, 학생 구성원, 응시시기 등을 담고 있다.  각 부문별 등급도 알 수 있다: 교수접근도, 문화, 지적생활, 캠퍼스 안전도, 등등.  같은 화면에서 유사한 대학의 리스트도 제공하고 있다. 물론 이 싸이트도 완벽한 것은 아니다.  대학 수가 제한적이다:  300개 정도의 학교를 싣고 있다.  4년제 대학이 3,400 개 이상이므로 10%에도 못 미친다.  또한 여러 대학을 나란히 비교할 수 없다.  그러나, 재학생의 논평과 사진과 비디오는 귀한 자료이다.  그러므로 학생들의 실제 이야기를 참고할 수 있다.  예를 들어 Yale에 관심이 있다면, 재학생이 최근의 투표에서 사회생활까지 직접 인터뷰한 비디오를 볼 수 있다.  그래서 여러분이 대학에서 일어나는 여러 가지에 대해 알 수 있으며 학생들의 생각을 엿볼 수 있다.  실제로 방문하지 않고, 캠퍼스의 감각을 익히는 데 이보다 더 좋은 방법은 없을 것이다.

The Advantages of the Small College with the Resources of a Giant University

  • Enrolling in a school that is part of a Consortium
  • The Small community-feel of certain Big Universities
  • Don't be deceived by the size of the school
Sometimes when I recommend a small, liberal arts school to students, say a school like Pomona College, they're puzzled. Why in the world would they want to pay $45-50,000 a year for a school with 1,500 students (smaller than most high schools) and, in all likelihood, with limited resources? On the surface, such an objection makes sense. However, it doesn't account for the consortium of colleges to which Pomona belongs. This consortium opens a huge network of educational opportunities for all Pomona students, while maintaining Pomona's personal and intimate touch. Pomona is part of the Claremont College Consortium. There are a total of 5 undergraduate campuses: Claremont McKenna, which specializes in business and economics; Harvey Mudd, engineering; Pitzer, behavior sciences; Scripps, foreign language; and two graduate schools. None of these colleges is much bigger than a mid-sized dorm at UCLA, yet each has its own faculty, administration, admissions office, and curriculum. They also share a number of services and facilities among themselves: art studios, a biological field station, a 2,500-seat concert hall, interscholastic athletic teams, and the Claremont library that houses over 1.9 million volumes. Students at any of the member Claremont College Consortium can cross register for over 2,500 different courses given by its members. While the average class size at Pomona College is 14 students, a Pomona student has access to almost unlimited educational resources-and I haven't even touched on Pomona's exchange programs with Swarthmore and Colby (on the East Coast), or the Study Abroad Program, or the 3-2 engineering program with Cal Tech. The Claremont Consortium is by no means a rarity. A number of smaller schools band together to offer cross registration of courses, share study abroad programs, or their facilities. One of the best listings of consortia can be found on page 771 of "Fiske Guide to Colleges, 2009." It lists some of the "largest and oldest" of these programs:
  • The Associated Colleges of the Midwest ( ): 14 institutions including Carleton, Macalester, University of Chicago, Colorado College, and Grinnell (Iowa)
  • The Associated Colleges of the South ( 16 institutions including  Davidson, University of Richmond, and Washington and Lee
  • Five College Consortium ( : including Smith College, Amherst College and three others; allows any undergraduate at the member schools to cross register
  • Great Lakes Colleges Association ( joins together 12 liberal arts schools including DePauw, Kenyon (Ohio), and Kalamazoo, to offer study abroad programs.The listing above is by no means comprehensive. There are consortiums among Swarthmore, Haverford, Bryn Mawr, and the University of Pennsylvania; the Colleges of Worcester Consortium (including Tufts, Holy Cross, and others); The Associated Colleges of the Twin Cities...the list goes on.
On the flip side of small schools magnifying resources through joining a consortium, are big universities that gain the feel of a small school through special honors programs, residential colleges, and special programs. Honors programs in schools such as UCLA ( ), University of Michigan, or University of Wisconsin, emphasize small class size, select faculty, and "community atmosphere in a large university." Other schools build a sense of community through a residential college program, initiated by Oxbridge, and incorporated by Yale, Harvard, and Pennsylvania universities (among many). Then there are special programs, with very limited enrollment and very low student/faculty ratios. One example is Cornell University's College of Human Ecology and its Interior Design program. It has about 100 students and 14 faculty members, with access to a university of over 13,000 undergraduates. The moral to take from this is to not be deceived by the size of a school. In many cases, a small school can access the resources of a giant, while a giant school might very well have programs that make it feel like an intimate community. Uncovering these features requires research, questioning and, better still, a visit, if at all possible. There are no rules for what a school's size means, only potential opportunities that beckon investigation. Ralph Becker Founder, Ivy College Prep LLC -------------------------------------- 대학의 자원을 접할 있는 작은 대학의 장점
  • Consortium 속하는 대학 연구
  • 대학 중에서 작은 이웃처럼 느끼기
  • 학교의 크기에 신경 쓰지 말라
필자가 학생들에게 Pomona college처럼 규모가 작은 인문과학대학을 추천하면,  그들은 고개를 갸우뚱한다.  학비 45-50,000불을 내고 학생수는 1,500 명(일반 공립고보다 작은 숫자)이고, 자원이 풍부하지 않는 학교를 다닐 것인가?  겉으로는 이러한 반대의견이 맞다.  그러나, 이는 Pomona 대학이 속해있는 consortium대학들을 고려하지 않은 탓이다.  이러한 consortium에서는 속한 대학의 학생들에게 엄청난 교육의 기회를 제공한다.  또한 Pomona의 가족적인 친밀한 관계도 유지할 수 있다. Pomona는 Claremont College Consortium에 속한다.  총 5개교가 참여하고 있다: Claremont McKenna는 경영과 경제를 전문으로 한다; Harvey Mudd는 공학전문; Pitzer는 행동과학전문; Scripps는 외국어 전문; 그리고 2개교의 대학원이 있다.  5개교 각각은 UCLA의 기숙사보다 크지 않지만, 자체 교수진과, 행정부, 입학사정실과 교과과정을 갖고 있다.  반면, 많은 서비스와 시설은 공유한다: art studios, 생물학 현장, 2500좌석의 음악당, 운동부, 190만권의 장서를 가진 Claremont 도서실.  이 대학들의 학생들은 2,500의 개설과목들을 어느 대학에서나 등록할 수 있다.  Pomona의 수업당 학생수는 평균 14명이며, 이 학생들은 거의 무한의 교육자원을 얻을 수 있다.  필자가 경험하지는 않았지만, 이대학은 East Coast에 있는 Swarthmore, Colby대학과 교환프로그램이 있으며, 해외유학 프로그램과 Cal Tech에서의 공학프로그램도 있다. Claremont Consortium만 특이한 것이 아니다.  많은 작은 대학들이 수강신청, 해외유학 프로그램과 시설을 공유하여 신청하도록 한다.  아래의 자료는 오래되고 유명한 프로그램들이다(Fiske Guide to Colleges, 2009, p. 771참고).
  • The Associated Colleges of the Midwest ( ): 14 institutions including Carleton, Macalester, University of Chicago, Colorado College, and Grinnell (Iowa)
  • The Associated Colleges of the South ( 16 institutions including  Davidson, University of Richmond, and Washington and Lee
  • Five College Consortium ( : including Smith College, Amherst College and three others; allows any undergraduate at the member schools to cross register
  • Great Lakes Colleges Association ( joins together 12 liberal arts schools including DePauw, Kenyon (Ohio), and Kalamazoo, to offer study abroad programs.
위 자료만이 전부가 아니다.  그 외에도 Swarthmore, Haverford, Bryn Mawr, and the University of Pennsylvania; the Colleges of Worcester Consortium (including Tufts, Holy Cross, and others); The Associated Colleges of the Twin Cities등 이상의 리스트가 있다. 작은 대학들이 consortium으로 자원을 극대화하는 반면, 큰 대학들은 honors programs를 제공하며 작은 대학의 환경을 만들어준다.  UCLA, University of Michigan, University of Wisconsin의 honors programs은 소규모수업, 탁월한 교수진과 가족 같은 분위기를 내세운다.  Oxbridge대학은 residential college program을 만들어 가족 같은 분위기를 조성하며, Yale, Harvard, Pennsylvania 대학들도 시도하고 있다.  또한 적은 학생수에 교수비율의 특별 프로그램을 시행하는 대학도 있다.  Cornell대학의 College of Human Ecology와  Interior Design program은 13,000명의 재학생 중에서 100명의 학생과 14명의 교수진을 갖고 있다. 여기에서 배울 점은 대학의 크기에 좌우되지 말라는 점이다.  작은 대학들은 무한의 자원에 접할 수 있는 프로그램이 있으며, 큰 대학들은 친밀한 분위기를 가질 수 있는 프로그램을 갖고 있다.  이러한 자세한 특성들은 자료연구, 질문, 방문 등 여러 가지 방법으로 가능하다.  그러므로 학교의 크기가 의미하는 바보다는 심층조사로 잠재적 기회를 포착해야 한다.

Dealing with the Costs of College

  • The Art of Leveraging your application
  • Don't hesitate to negotiate financial aid packages with colleges that have accepted you
Tuitions are slated to rise over the next years as public schools feel the pressure of state government belt tightening, and private schools encounter a drop off of funds. One remedy might be to apply to the service academies , which will cover all your costs and pay you a monthly stipend, or attend tuition-free schools (with some, such as Deep Springs, actually picking up all costs) .  Or, if you're lucky enough to gain admission to the most selective schools, you might find some incredible blue light specials: Stanford is eliminating tuition completely for students from families earning less than $100,000; Dartmouth & MIT are eliminating tuition for students from families earning less than $75,000; Harvard is implementing a descending payment scale for families earning less than $180,000. For families earning between $120,000 and 180,000, only 10% of their income will be paid to cover tuition; under $60,000, the family pays nothing. If, however, these alternatives do not fit into your college plans, don't despair. Now is a good time to start thinking about how you're going to leverage your application in the world of financial aid. No matter where you are in high school, there is one cardinal rule: get the best grades possible, and study for your standardized tests. Many schools, such as University of Nevada, Reno, award scholarships based on combinations of high standardized scores and GPAs. The higher your grades and test scores, the more options you will have to leverage your application Next, you need to apply to a lot of schools.  Look hard for schools where there might be a shortage of candidates with your type of qualities. If the school needs male trombone players, and it's a school of interest, get your application in.  Don't fall in love with one school and decide that you're going to apply Early Decision: if you do get in, your efforts to secure grants will be hampered. The admissions office does not have to negotiate very hard with you. It will, of course, give you enough to make attending affordable (or you can withdraw from the commitment), but the word 'affordable' has many definitions. Next, determine the total cost of attending each school on your list. One quick way to do this is to use College Navigator (, which contains 'estimated student expenses' and detailed financial aid information. Knowing your student expenses, you then deduct your grants and scholarships to determine your out-of-pocket expenses. You also need to know, should you be offered any scholarships, what are the requirements to get them renewed for each year you attend. Some schools offer substantial grants for freshman year. Once in, however, the renewal of these scholarships sometimes becomes extremely difficult. Also be aware of how long it will take to get your degree. For example, if you're attending Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, and planning to study engineering, in all likelihood it's going to take 5-6 years to get your degree, not the standard 4. Again, you can find out about retention and graduation rates on College Navigator. This fact needs to be considered when negotiating your financial aid package with the admissions office. The key to this exercise is to get a mix of colleges interested in your application. You want them to feel the heat of competition. Then, you want to compare their offers. Sure, Yale's director of student financial services, Caesar Storlazzi, will tell you Yale, "does not match awards from other schools." Yet, if you've been accepted, Yale wants you. Consequently, Mr. Storlazzi adds, "(after) seeing the copy of an award from another school (it) often enables us to review the Yale 'needs analysis' and ask questions of the family to help us in reviewing our calculation of the parents' contribution." (US News and World Report, September 7, 2007, "How to Leverage Your Aid" by Kim Clark)   In other words, they're ready to play ball. Ralph Becker Founder, Ivy College Prep LLC -------------------------------------- 대학 학자금 다루는 방법
  • 대학원서 활용의 예술
  • 입학된 대학과 재정보조 협상을 주저하지 말라
대학 등록금이 공립은 주정부의 재정압박으로 사립대학은 기금의 삭감으로 앞으로 몇 년간 계속 올라갈 것이다.  한가지 처방은 군복무 학교에 지원하는 것으로, 학비와 월 생활비까지 보장받는다.  아니면, 등록금-무료 대학(Deep Springs 대학에서는 모든 비용이 무료)에 다니는 것이다.  아니며, 운좋게도 명문대학에 입학하는 길이다.  아래의 명문대학들은 믿을 수 없는 밝은 빛을 비추어 준다: Stanford는 연소득 10만불이하의 가정의 자녀의 학비무료: Dartmouth & MIT에서는 연소득 7만5천불 이하의 가정의 자녀 학비무료; Harvard에서는 연소득 18만 이하의 가정의 학비를 비율로 삭감, 즉 12만에서 18만 소득 가정은 수입의 10%를 학비로 내지만, 6만이하의 가정은 전혀 학비를 내지않는다. 한편, 위와 같은 대안들이 여러분의 대학 계획에 들어있지 않더라도 너무 실망할 필요는 없다.  이제부터 재정보조를 위하여 여러분의 원서를 어떻게 활용할 것인지 생각해야 할 시기이다.  어느 고교에 재학 중이든지 한가지 주요한 규칙이 있다: 가능한한 좋은 학점을 받기와 표준고사 시험준비이다.  많은 대학들 (예: University of Nevada, Reno)은 학점과 시험성적을 합하여 장학금을 준다.  학점과 시험점수가 높으면 높을수록, 학자금을 받아낼 수 있는 선택은 많아진다. 다음, 많은 대학에 응시할 필요가 있다.  여러분과 같은 자질을 가진 응시자가 적은 학교를 애써서 찾아라.  만약 대학이 남자 트롬본주자를 필요로 하는데, 여러분이 맞다면, 원서를 넣어라.  한 학교에 집착해서 얼리 디시젼으로 응시하지 말아라: 합격이 되면, 그랜트를 받으려는 여러분의 노력은 무산될 수 있다.  이때, 입학사정실은 여러분과 협상할 필요가 없다.  물론 여러분이 대학을 다닐 수 있도록 도울 수 있지만, 돕는다는 의미도 다양하다. 다음, 여러분의 리스트에 있는 각 대학의 전체 비용을 계산하여라.  알아보는 빠른 방법은 College Navigator(이다.  대학에 드는 재정보조 정보와 ‘평균 학생비용’이 나와있다.  전체 비용을 알고서 그랜트와 장학금을 제하면 개인 지불비용을 알 수 있다.  또한 만약 여러분이 장학금을 받게되었다면, 매년 받기위한 자격도 미리 알아두는 것이 유용하다.  그러나 한번 받으면, 계속 받기란 매우 어렵다. 또한 학위를 받는데 걸리는 시간을 염두에 두어야 한다.  예를 들면, Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo에서 공학을 공부한다면, 4년이 아닌 적어도 5-6년은 걸릴 것이다.  College Navigator에서 재학과 졸업률을 알아 볼 수 있다.  이런 사실도 재정문제와 더불어 고려되어야 한다. 이런 과정의 열쇠는 대학이 여러분의 원서에 흥미를 갖게 하는 것이다.  여러분이 대학이 경쟁을 느끼게 만들 수도 있다.  그 다음 각 대학들이 제공하는 장학금을 비교하는 것이다.  Yale대학의 학생재정담당관인, Caesar Storlazzi는 ‘다른 대학에서 제공하는 장학금과 상응하는 상이 없음’이라고 할 수 있다.  그러나, 여러분이 합격되었다면, 예일대에서는 여러분을 원한다.  그래서 Mr. Storlazzi는 “다른 대학이 제공하는 장학금을 살펴보고, 경제지원 ‘필요성 분석’을 위하여 가정환경을 분석하고 부모님의 재정능력을 고려할 수 있다”고 덧붙였다.  다시 말해, 여러분은 게임을 할 준비를 해야 한다.