liberal arts

Yale University in Singapore—the Liberal Arts in Asia—and its Discontents


  • Singapore becoming university hub for Asia
  • Dozens of top flight universities have joint ventures in Singapore
  • Yale NUS project creating tension in New Haven

The small city state of Singapore, with a population of just over 5 million, is quickly becoming the educational hub of Asia. Prior to the turn of the 21st century, Singapore offered postsecondary degrees almost solely through its two large flagship universities: National University of Singapore (NUS), and Nanyang Technological University (NTU). Then, in January 2000, Singapore Management University opened its doors, followed by Singapore Institute of Management (2005), Singapore Institute of Technology (2009), Singapore University of Technology and Design (2011), and, coming soon, Yale/NUS (2013).

Although Yale already has a joint program with Peking University in China, the Yale/NUS liberal arts college will establish Yale’s permanent presence in the heart of Southeast Asia. The campus will begin its first class of 150 students in August of 2013 (actually in July—as the first class will be provided a month long orientation in New Haven, CT). The plan is for class size to increase, over the next several years, to 250 students per class, raising total enrollment to 1000.

Yale-NUS college will now be added to the already extensive list of alliances between US, along with European and Australian, universities and the various colleges and technical schools in Singapore: Chapman University in Film & TV production, University of Chicago Booth School of Business Asia Campus, NYU Tisch School of the Arts, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Johns Hopkins Division of Biomedical Sciences (NUS), Singapore Stanford Partnership (NTU), Singapore MIT Alliance (NTU), Cornell School of Hospitality Management (NTU), UN Las Vegas, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore…and this is but a sample of Singapore’s educational pulse.

While a number of the universities listed above are involved in exchange of faculty, specific course design and curriculum development, the Yale NUS joint venture will be a brand new university, anchored in Singapore, with  BS and BA degrees across, initially, 14 majors, awarded by NUS, yet with the full resources of the Yale Alumni available to all graduates. The government of Singapore, through NUS, is financing the entire program, which includes building a separate campus with three residential colleges. Each college will have its own dining, student facilities, quads, and rector, who will live among the students (all modeled upon Yale’s residential college system). Classrooms will be integrated into the residential colleges as well.

The cost for an international student to attend is 15,000 Singapore dollars per semester (about $12,000 US) and all students accepted will receive 50% scholarship for room and board which reduces room and board to $1,400 US per semester. Double the sum for the school year, and the total cost is well under US $30,000, which is competitive with the costs of many UC campuses (though flying half way around the world might add a bit to the calculation).   

Naturally, not all parties on the Yale side are happy about the coming premiere of Yale NUS. The joint venture with NUS was initiated by two members of the Yale Corporation (which is the governing body of Yale chaired by the President of Yale, a board of trustees, the governor of Connecticut, and alumni fellows who serve staggered 6-year terms) who were advisors on the Government of Singapore’s investment portfolio. The chief faculty critic, Seyla Benhabib, a political science professor, put the position of Yale’s faculty in very blunt terms: “Leaving aside this venture’s naïve missionary sentiment, one must ask: Do we need to go to Singapore to advance … a revival of the liberal arts?” (“What’s at Stake at Yale-NUS”, Yale Daily News, 4 April 2012) After which a resolution was passed by the faculty calling into question issues of civil and political rights within the state of Singapore (and the fact that the faculty will be involved with curriculum development and staffing—without having any voice in the decision.) This provoked President Levine of Yale to comment that the tone of Ms. Benhabib’s resolution “carried a sense of moral superiority that I found unbecoming.”

The launch of the Yale-NUS College is coming with its own brand of fireworks—adding just a splash of hot chili sauce to Yale’s Singapore Sling.

The Service Academy Alternative: Senior Military Colleges


  • Senior Military College Characteristics
  • Virginia Military Institute (VMI)
  • Top Liberal Arts Programs
  • Norwich University (VT)

The Service Academies: Military, Naval, Air Force, and Coast Guard (/imported-20110121194859/2008/9/2/attending-us-service-academies.html) provide excellent education and training for students intending to serve in the armed forces upon graduation. ROTC programs are another means to the same end: /imported-20110121194859/2011/4/8/the-rotc-reserved-officers-training-corps-scholarship.html. Then, there is a hybrid of the services academies and ROTC: the senior military colleges.

Each of the six senior military colleges is unique.  All are public save Norwich University (VT). All combine traditional students with a ‘Corp of Cadets’ save Virginia Military Institute (VMI ). There the entire class of 1,400 cadets is in ROTC. VMI’s ambience is Spartan, the discipline strict, and the curriculum focuses on engineering, the sciences, and liberal arts, the real liberal arts. At VMI, liberal arts is not composed of ‘fluff’ electives or deconstructed feminist studies, but a solid core curriculum of rigorous analysis, composition and readings of the Great Books such as Aristotle and Shakespeare. It has produced more Rhodes scholars (11 since 1921) per graduate than any other state college or university in the United States. Furthermore, each cadet is bound to adhere strictly to the Honor Code which emphasizes, “Excellence in all things: military bearing, discipline, and conduct…”  Upon graduation, cadets may either enlist in the armed forces (and many do), or pursue a civilian career.

VMI, and certainly the Citadel (SC), are steeped in tradition. VMI, the West Point of the South, includes among its alumni Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (famed general of the Confederacy), and George Marshall (heralded WWII General, creator of the Marshall Plan, and Nobel Prize winner). Eight VMI cadets who perished defending Shenandoah Valley against a Union siege at the end of the Civil War are now buried on its 134 acre campus.   

Probably one of the key reasons the senior military academy alternative is not on many application lists is because, as mentioned, there are only six such schools in the country and all except Texas A&M, the alma mater of Rick Perry, the current governor of Texas, are on the East Coast. The list of schools includes the following:

  1. Virginia Military Institute (VMI):  Lexington, VA—a public senior military college
  2. North Georgia College and State University: Dahlonega, GA—public senior military college also enrolling civilian students
  3. Texas A&M University: College Station, TX— public senior military college also enrolling civilian students
  4. The Citadel: Charleston, SC-- public senior military college also enrolling civilian students
  5. Virginia Polytechnic Institute: Blacksburg, VA-- public senior military college also enrolling civilian students
  6. Norwich University: Northfield, VT—private senior military college also enrolling civilian students

An example of a campus that mixes traditional students with cadets, Norwich University (VT), was founded in 1819 by Alden Partridge a former West Point superintendent, and is the granddaddy of senior military schools. It has served as a model institution for VMI and is where the ROTC program originated in 1916. Norwich, like its southern counterpart VMI, produced hundreds of officers during the Civil War—so many, in fact, that the class of 1864 contained a mere seven students. Today, it is a vibrant school with classes composed with equal numbers of cadets and ‘traditional students’ studying nursing, computer science, engineering among the 30 bachelor degree programs offered. In all areas of the campus and its activities, except in residential and military exercises, the traditional students and cadets freely mix.  

If you enjoy tradition, understand the importance of discipline, and seek an education that recognizes your individuality and your inherent need to excel, a senior military college might be a perfect fit. Attending one doesn’t obligate you to enlistment in the services, but all six provide superior educational experiences with value (VMI’s COA for out of state students is $40,000; Citadel’s $38,000; Norwich University’s $43,000), and all know how to create leaders bold in action. You might just find yourself at ease in one of them.

사관학교의 대안: 고급 군사대학

  • 고급 군사대학의 특징
  • Virginia Military Institute (VMI)
  • 최고의 인문학 프로그램
  • Norwich University (VT)

사관학교들: Military, Naval, Air Force, Coast Guard (는 졸업 후 해야 하는 일을 우수하게 수행할 수 있는 교육을 제공한다.  또한 ROTC 프로그램도 거의 동일하다고 본다 (/imported-20110121194859/2011/4/8/the-rotc-reserved-officers-training-corps-scholarship.html ).  그런데, 여기데 사관학교와 ROTC프로그램이 혼합된 대학이 있다: 고급 군사대학들이다.

여섯 개의 군사대학이 있는데, 모두 독특하다.  Norwich University(VT)만 제외하고 모두 공립이다.  그리고 Virginia Military Institute (VMI)만 제외한 다른 대학들은 일반 학생과 ‘사관생’(Corp of Cadets)이 같이 있다.  1,400명의 생도가 ROTC 프로그램에 들어 있다.  VMI의 분위기는 스파르타식이며, 커리쿨럼은 공학, 과학, 인문학에 초점이 되어 있다.  VMI의 인문학은 그저 그런 선택과목이나 대충 짜여진 여성학 정도가 아닌, 철저한 분석과  Aristotle, Shakespeare 의 명저들을 읽고 작문하는 견고한 커리쿨럼이다.  미국 내 어떤 주립대학보다 많은 로즈 장학생 (1921년 이후 11명)을 배출하였다.  또한 생도생은 ‘모든 것에서 우수할 것: 군사능력, 훈련, 행동…..’의 Honor code를 철저히 지켜야 한다.  졸업 후 에는 생도생들은 군에 지원하거나 (대부분 지원함), 아니면 일반 직업을 가질 수 있다.

VMI와 the Citadel(SC)은 전통에 뛰어나다.  VMI는 남부의 West Point로 불리며, 졸업생에는 Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson(전 남부정부군 사령관)과 George Marshall (WWII의 사령관, 마샬플랜 창시자, 노벨수상자)이 있다.  또한 8명의 VMI생도가 남북전쟁 말에 연합군에 포위된 Shenandoah Valley를 지키다 전사하여 현재 134에이크의 캠퍼스 안에 묻혀있다.

또 한가지 중요한 점은 군사대학이 6개 뿐이며, Rock Perry (현 택사스 주지사)가 졸업한 Texas A&M만 제외하고 는 모두 동부해안선에 있다.  리스트를 보면:

  1. Virginia Military Institute (VMI):  Lexington, VA—공립
  2. North Georgia College and State University: Dahlonega, GA—일반학생을 받는 공립
  3. Texas A&M University: College Station, TX— 일반학생을 받는 공립
  4. The Citadel: Charleston, SC—일반학생을 받는 공립
  5. Virginia Polytechnic Institute: Blacksburg, VA—일반학생을 받는 공립
  6. Norwich University: Northfield, VT—일반학생을 받는 사립

일반 학생과 생도가 같이 공부하는 Norwich University (VT)는 1819에 전 West Point교장이었던 Alden Partridge가 세웠으며, 정말 군사대학의 대부이다.  VM는1916년에  ROTC프로그램을 창설하였으며 모델 대학의 역할을 하고 있다.  남부의 VMI인 Norwich는 남북전쟁시 수많은 군인을 배출하였으며, 그리하여class of 1864는 겨우 7명뿐이었다.  현재 이 대학에는 일반학생과 생도가 반반이며, 간호학, 컴퓨터 공학, 공학 등 30개의 전공이 있다.  군사훈련만 제외하고는 모든 학생들이 자유롭게 어울리고 있다.

만약 여러분이 제복에 편하고, 훈련의 중요성을 이해하고, 뛰어난 교육과 함께 개인적인 우수성을 추구한다면, 이런 고급 군사대학일 잘 맞을 것이다.  또한 이 여섯 대학이 입대할 의무를 부여하지 않으며 정말 가치 있는 교육 (VMI의 교육비는 타주생이 $40,000; Citadel은 $38,000; Norwich Univ.; $43,000)으로 이 대학들은 리더를 양성하는 법을 알고 있다.  여러분이 간다면, 정말 잘 어울릴 수 있을 것이다.

The Marked Decline of Liberal Arts Colleges and Why

  • Students want to study vocational subjects
  • Number of Liberal Arts schools declined to 225
  • Definition of the Humanities
  • Humanities at Trinity College (CT), Amherst, and Wellesley

Liberal Arts Colleges and Universities are in crisis. Victor Ferrall Jr, a graduate of Oberlin College (#24 on the US News list of liberal arts colleges), president emeritus of Beloit College (WI) (#60) and author of Liberal Arts at the Brink cites a statistic that in 2000, fewer than 100,000 students, or less than 0.6 percent of all US higher education enrollees graduated from liberal arts colleges. ( ‘Wither the Liberal Arts College?’ by Anne Trubek, 27 September 2011) That doesn’t mean that only liberal arts colleges award degrees in liberal arts subjects, about a third of baccalaureates went to liberal arts subjects (which includes math, social sciences, and the humanities), with a third of that amount, just over 10%, to the humanities (Classics, History, Languages, Literature, Performing Arts)(, p.4)  This news is usually met with a shrug of indifference. Possibly for good reason: the liberal arts, and certainly the humanities, have lost their collective philosophical rudder.  

All told, Mr. Ferrall notes there are only 225 liberal arts schools extant, which he categorizes into four tiers(why he bothers to do this is anyone’s guess). This somewhat jives with US News which stops its liberal arts ranking at 178 with the likes of Bethany Lutheran College (Mankato, MN) and then goes on to list a slew of unranked institutions. At the lower rungs of Mr. Ferrall’s tiered system are former bastions of liberal arts now catering to students with a range of vocational courses.  At last count 51 had over 50% of their majors in vocational subjects such as business or health care. It appears, from the bottom up, these last strands of liberal arts schools are being transformed into vocational training centers.

William James, who fathered psychology (writing the two volume magnum opus on the subject, included in most Great Book readings) at Harvard in the late 19th century and was the brother of Henry James, the famous American novelist, defines the humanities as ‘the study of masterpieces in almost any field of human endeavor.’ The product of the pursuit of the humanities is, “… (a) better-organized mind capable of inquiry and distinguishing false from true and fact from opinion; a mind enhanced in its ability to write, read, and compute…with a trained curiosity and quiet self-confidence.”  (Barzan, Jacques)

If humanities courses were intended to study the ‘masterpieces’ or ‘masterstrokes’ mentioned by James, what has actually happened in these disciplines over the years?  At Trinity College, Hartford, Ct (#37) the philosophy department in the undergraduate catalog announces, “A good philosopher should know at least a little something about everything…” (The Marketplace of Ideas by Louis Menand, p.13), and then mentions under “Introductory Courses”, “…there is no single best way to be introduced to philosophy.” Could you imagine the same treatment for an Organic Chemistry course at Trinity?

Or compare the English department of Amherst (#2 US News) and Wellesley (#6). Wellesley requires majors to take 10 department courses, 8 must be literature (Wellesley’s English department offers a number of courses in film), basic writing courses do not count, with 4 courses required to be in literature prior to 1900; one course in Shakespeare is required. This is hardly the rigor one would expect for a major at such an elite institution as Wellesley, but it does compare favorably with Amherst.

Amherst also requires 10 courses for its English major, of which all, upon approval by the Amherst English department, can be within any department. There is no core requirement, no historical period requirement, and the courses selected for the final project can even be changed up to the final add/drop date of a student’s final semester (Ibid. p.14). In essence, the English department at Amherst barely exists.  

Obviously, the permissive manner in which Amherst holds its English requirements indicates that it doesn’t take its role as guide to review masterpieces of humanity very seriously. It’s hard to even consider English a ‘discipline,’ within the walls of Amherst. Unfortunately, too many schools have forsaken the humanities, and, consequently, the humanities languish on the verge of extinction. It’s slightly reminiscent of Fahrenheit 451. But, why bother reading that anyway? It won’t get you a job.

인문대학의 수요 감소와 이유

  • 학생들의 직업으로 가는 전공선택
  • 인문대학의 숫자 225개교로 감소
  • 인문학의 정의
  • Trinity College (CT), Amherst, Wellesley대학의 인문학

인문대학들이 위기에 처해 있다.  Oberlin College (US News의 인문대학 리스트의 24위)의 졸업생이며 Beloit College (WI: 60위)의 명예총장이며 Liberal Arts at the Brink의 저자인 Victor Ferrall Jr.는 2000년에는 인문대학 학생 수가 10만명 미만이 될 것이며, 인문대학 졸업생은 학사학위의 0.6%이하가 될 것으로 언급했다 ( ‘Wither the Liberal Arts College?’ by Anne Trubek, 27 September 2011).  물론 인문대학이 인문학 학위만 수여하는 것은 아니다.  인문대학의 1/3은 인문학(수학, 사회과학, 인문학 포함)에 수여되었으며, 그 중 1/3인 약 10%만이 인문학 (고전, 역사, 언어, 문학, 행위예술)에 수여 되었다 (, p.4).  이 소식이 새로운 것은 아니다.  이유를 찾는다면, 교양 학문, 즉 인문학이 이제는 철학적인 방향키를 잃은 것이다.

 또한 Mr. Ferrall은 현재 225개의 인문대학이 존재한다고 밝히며 여기에는 4류에 속하는 Bethany Lutheran College (Mankato, MN; US News 178위)이 있고, 등위에 들지 않는 학교들도 있다고 한다.  또한 이전에는 요새에 속했던 인문대학들이 직업 과목들을 추가하며 학생들에게 맞추고 있다고 한다.  이 대학들에서의 전공이 50%이상이 비즈니스나 건강관리 등의 직업 과목들이다.  이제 인문대학들이 직업 교육기관으로 전락하는 것을 보여 준다.

미 소설가로 유명한 Henry James와 형제이며, 19세기 말 하버드에서 심리학을 창시한 William James (Great Books의 독서리스트의 2권의 대표작을 씀)는 인문학을 다음과 같이 정의했다: 인간 연구의 모든 분야에서의 최고의 연구이다.  인간성의 추구는….”질의를 할 수 있도록 잘 짜인 머리로  참과 거짓을 구별하며; 훈련된 호기심과 차분한 자신감으로 쓰고, 읽고, 계산하는 능력을 향상시키는 결정체”이다(Barzan, Jacques).

그렇다면, James가 언급한 이러한 최고의 교육은 어떤 결과를 낳았는가?  Trinity College (37위), Hartford, CT의 철학과의 카탈로그에는 다음과 같이 나와 있다:  좋은 철학자는 적어도 모든 것에 대해 어떤 것을 알아야 한다…..입문과목으로….철학을 소개하기에 가장 좋은 한 가지 방법은 없다 (The Marketplace of Ideas by Louis Menand, p.13).  이 목표를 이 대학의 Organic Chemistry과목에도 적용할 수 있을까?

다음, Amherst(US News 2위)와 Wellesley (6위)의 영문과를 비교하면, Wellesley는 10과목 중에서 8과목은 문학 (Wellesley영문과에는 영화에 관한 과목들도 있다)이어야 하며, 쓰기과목은 포함이 되지 않고, 그 중 4과목은 1900년 이전의 문학이며, Shakespeare 한 과목은 필수이다.  Wellesley와 같은 명문대에서는 가능한 요구이지만, Amherst에서는 아니다.

Amherst역시 영어전공을 위해서는 영문과에서 승인한 10과목의 영어를 요구한다.  그러나 핵심 필수과목이 없고, 연대별 필수도 없다.  최종 프로젝트도 마지막 학기 첨가/삭제 기간까지 변경이 가능하다.  말하자면, 이 대학 영문과도 근근히 존재하고 있다.

이렇게 Amherst의 허용적인 태도는 인간성의 걸작을 리뷰하는 가이드의 역할을 잘 감당한다고 보기가 어렵다.  어쩌면 Amherst를 영어를 학문으로 여기는 대학으로 보기도 어렵다.  불행히도 많은 대학들이 인문학을 포기하고 있다.  그 결과로 인문학은 시들고 있으며 사라지기 직전이다.  Fahrenheit 451이 생각난다.  그러나 왜 이 책을 읽겠는가?  이 책을 읽는다고 좋은 직업을 보장하는 것이 아닌데…

Top Small Liberal Arts Schools: Haverford and Pomona College

Highly successful students, prior to matriculation, have concrete undergraduate goals. Research experience, whether in the humanities, social sciences, or the hard sciences, mentored by a respected faculty member is one. If such research leads to publication, that’s even better. Building solid communication skills, particularly writing skills, is another. Effectively presenting written proposals is critical to propelling any career. Moreover, developing a rapport with at least two professors is critical for either graduate school or the real world of the job market. Successful undergraduate careers attain these goals to some degree or another.

Selecting a college that best accommodates your path to achieving these goals is what the admissions process is all about. Knowing what stimulates your best academic efforts is the first step. If you happen to prefer a smaller college in which full professors take a personal interest in their undergraduates by nurturing intellectual curiosity, framing research skills, and grooming communication skills, two smaller liberal arts schools warrant inspection: Haverford and Pomona College.

Neither has a graduate school. Teaching is the primary focus of the faculty, and the professors, some among the elite in their disciplines, are accessible and committed to the undergraduate learning experience. At Haverford the student to teacher ratio is 8:1. Even introductory courses are taught by full professors, and rarely do they exceed 15 students.  Both exercise a great deal of trust in their student body. Haverford, which has one of the most encompassing honor codes (probably only matched by Davidson College in North Carolina) lets students take tests in their dorms. Few students ever break, or even contemplate breaking, the honor code.  

Both are steeped in tradition. Haverford dates back to 1833, when it was founded by the religious Society of Friends. It has strong Quaker roots. This is reflected in the aforementioned honor code and trust the entire campus is imbued with by the honor system, which inseminates all parts of the campus’s activities and beliefs. Pomona College, on the other hand, also has its foundations firmly established in the 19th century. In 1899, the football team actually beat USC.

Pomona soaks in the Southern California sunshine and resides in suburban Claremont, a mere 35 miles from Hollywood, while Haverford is in suburban Philadelphia, only 10 miles, a short train ride, to the heart of historic Philadelphia. Haverford’s 206 acre campus contains both an assiduously detailed arboretum (with over 4,000 trees composed of over 250 species), and a duck pond stocked with ducks. Both are encircled by a 2-mile nature walk. The facilities, however, are exceptional. Both Haverford and Pomona have multimillion dollar athletic facilities. Haverford’s cost $23,000,000—that’s a nice resource for fewer than 1,200 students. With an endowment of around $400,000,000, Haverford has the wherewithal to upgrade facilities well beyond ostensible numbers.  

Though both schools are small, Pomona 1,500 and Haverford 1170 undergraduates, both have extensive consortiums. Pomona is part of the Claremont consortium that includes Scripps, Claremont McKenna, Harvey Mudd, and Pitzer. Haverford’s consortium includes Swarthmore, Bryn Mawr, and the University of Pennsylvania. Ironically, both have 3-2 engineering programs with Cal Tech. What is truly exceptional about both programs are their commitments to their undergraduates. Both colleges are the only two in the US which guarantee research opportunities for all students in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities.

Obviously, this description of Haverford and Pomona Colleges merely scratches the surface of what these two schools offer their students. Certainly, the academics at both are rigorous, the attention a student receives at either is almost personalized, and the possibilities available for a motivated graduate of either school are virtually unlimited.  These are gems warranting the consideration of even the most discerning applicants: nice places to spend four years.


동서의 작은 명문 인문대학: Haverford Pomona College

우수한 학생들은 대학 입학 전부터 대학에 대한 목표가 뚜렷하다.  첫째는 뛰어난 교수로부터 지도를 받으며 인문과학이나 사회과학 혹은 자연과학에서 리서치를 하는 것이다.  이 리서치가 출판으로 이어지면 더욱 좋다.  다음, 견고한 의사소통 기술을 쌓는 것이며, 여기에 글쓰기 기술도 포함된다.  더 나아가 적어도 2명의 교수와 친밀감을 갖는 것이 대학원 진학이나 직업을 가질 때는 매우 중요하다.  성공적인 대학생활이란 이러한 목표를 이루는 것이다.

대학을 잘 선택한다는 것은 이러한 목표를 이룰 수 있도록 여러분의 진로를 정하는 것이다.  여러분이 학업 능력을 잘 발휘할 수 있어야 하는 것이 첫번째이다.  만약 여러분이 작은 대학을 선택하여 전 교수가 학생들의 지적 호기심을 자극하고, 리서치 기술을 보여주며, 의사소통 기술도 연마하도록 하도록 개인적인 관심을 갖는 곳을 찾는다면 2군데 작은 인문대학을 알아보도록 하자: Haverford와 Pomona College.

두 대학 모두 대학원이 없다.  가르치는 것이 이 대학의 교수들의 우선 관심이다.  전공분야의 최고의 교수들도 쉽게 만날 수 있으며, 직접 공부를 배울 수 있다.  Haverford는 학생 대 교수 비율이 8:1이다.  그래서 입문 과목도 교수에게 배우며, 거의 학생수가 15명을 넘지 않는다.  교수와 학생 모두 서로 신뢰를 바탕으로 한다.  Haverford에서는 무감독 명예제도(단지 North Carolina의 Davidson College에서만 실시됨)로 기숙사에서 시험을 본다.  그래도 학생들은 이 제도를 무시하지 않으며, 무시할 생각조차도 않는다.

두 대학 모두 전통에 빛난다.  Haverford는 종교단체 Society of Friends에서 1833년에 세운 대학이다.  강한 퀘이크의 뿌리를 갖고 있다.  이러한 정신은 이미 언급한 무감독 제도에도 나타나며, 전 교정에 이러한 명예제도 방식으로 캠퍼스의 신념이나 다른 활동에도 스며있다.  한편, Pomona College는 19C에 설립되었으며, 1899년에는 축구팀이 USC를 물리치기도 했다.

Pomona 는 Southern California의 태양아래에 Hollywood에서 35마일 떨어져서 Claremont 근교에 자리잡고 있다.  반면, Haverford는 Philadelphia중심지에서 짧은 기차여행으로 닿을 수 있는 10마일 떨어진 곳에 있다.  Haverford는 206에이커의 교정에 수목원(250 종류의 4,000그루의 나무들)을 이루고 있으며 오리떼가 몰여있는 오리 연못이 있다.  두 곳 모두 2마일의 산책로가 있으며, 시설은 이례적이다.  두 대학 모두 수백만 달러의 체육시설을 갖고 있다.  Haverford의 시설은 $23,000,000인데, 학생 수는 1,200명이 채 안된다.  Haverford는 4억불의 자산으로 시설을 최고로 높은 수준으로 만들고 있다.

Pomona의 1,500명, Haverford의 1,170명으로 두 대학 모두 작은 규모지만 폭넓은 콘솔시엄을 갖고 있다.  Pomona는 Scripps, Claremont McKenna, Harvey Mudd, Pitzer로 이루어진 Claremont consortium에 속해 있다. Haverford는 Swarthmore, Bryn Mawr, University of Pennsylvania의 콘솔시엄에 속해 있다.  또한 재미나게 두 대학 모두 Cal Tech와 공학 프로그램을 갖고 있다.  두 대학이 공통적으로 갖는 특이점은 미국에서 인문과학, 사회과학, 자연과학 분야에서 대학에서 리서치를 할 수 잇는 유일한 두 곳이다.

위와 같은 이러한 설명은 두 대학이 학생들에게 제공하는 가치의 표면적인 것들만 언급했다고 할 수 있다.  두 대학 모두 학문적으로 우수하며, 학생들은 개인적인 관심을 받으며, 졸업생들의 가능성은 무한하다고 할 수 있다.  정말 우수한 학생들이 고려해야 할, 4년을 보내기에 좋은 곳으로 추천하는 보석들이다.

Occidental College-the pearl of Eagle Rock

To some, Occidental College excites: Barrack Obama spent a year there; Jack Kemp, the former vice presidential candidate and quarterback for the Buffalo Bills, also attended. To others, it stirs no more emotion than drinking lukewarm coffee at a PSTA meeting. Whatever your view, the campus is gorgeous; it rises to the top of Eagle Rock and offers beautiful glimpses of LA, with robust eucalyptus trees and buildings by the master architect Myron Hunt, who also designed the Huntington Library. The Oxy campus has been the site of countless movie productions; if you want the list, click to its write up in Wikipedia: Further, the academics are top caliber with a large portion of its graduates gaining PhDs and professional degrees. The medical school at UCSD looks favorably on Oxy applicants: most come with solid undergraduate research and a firm command of the sciences.

Why then does Pomona College seem to elicit excitement while Occidental rarely garners the respect it deserves? In football both colleges inaugurated, in 1895, the original west coast rivalry. This year Occidental beat Pomona, which is usually the outcome, but few students on the Oxy campus were even aware. Oxy is a school with more academic than athletic prowess (though well over a quarter of the students play varsity sports). What’s important to many Oxy students is that the library is open 24/7 Monday through Friday. It closes at midnight on Saturdays, so if you have a favorite study spot you won’t be too inconvenienced.   

Two things are a little scary about Occidental College. The first is Oxy’s retention rate: 91% of freshmen return for sophomore year (are they out of money or just not a good match?) That means out of a class of 500, 50 are gone by the beginning of sophomore year; that’s a bit disturbing, but the academics at Oxy are serious. Oxy has superb tutoring centers and solid advisories for those in need, but sometimes that’s not enough. More concerning, however, is that less than 80% of the class graduates in 4 years. At $55,000 a year, with tuition and board rates escalating at over 5% a year that could turn into a substantial bill.

The Oxy Core curriculum features two writing seminars and colloquia. If you select a section that discusses “Genres in Classical Literature” rather than “The Unbearable Whiteness of Barbie,” you might build better analytical and writing skills.  Additionally, Oxy has some tremendous, one-of-a-kind programs. The Diplomacy and World Affairs program is highly touted as a complete semester and internship in the UN Secretariat. Urban and Environmental Policy is also another solid program, with a strong emphasis on theoretical classroom material coupled with extensive research and ‘hands-on’ application. Occidental turns out top flight scholars. It’s in the top 25 of liberal arts schools producing PhDs in science and engineering according to the National Science Foundation, and has had over 600 students, since 1981, go on to medical and dental school; that’s about 5% of the total graduates over a period of 30 years.

The professors are stellar and accessible. Oxy students can take classes at Cal Tech for free, and there are plenty of challenges to be had there. Additionally, any pre-law Oxy student with ‘competitive’ LSAT and GPA, in junior year can accelerate in a combined program with Columbia University—and gain an Occidental BA with a Columbia JD.

If you have any intention of attending Oxy and happen to live in Southern California, visit the campus. The first question on Oxy’s supplement to the Common application is: “If you've had the opportunity to visit campus, please indicate when and in what capacity and briefly describe your visit experience.” If you live within 50 miles it’s nice to be able to say you did. You’d also be doing yourself a favor: Oxy is a beautiful, dynamic, small liberal arts college in the heart of a bustling metropolis. It is a rare jewel that many take for granted, or not at all.

Occidental College- Eagle Rock 진주

아름다운 캠퍼스

학문적인 우수성: Oxy Core

LA 대도시의 오아시스

어떤 사람들에게 옥시덴탈(옥시) 대학은 오바마 대통령이 1년 다녔고, 전 부통령후보이자 Buffalo Bills의 쿼터백인 Jack Kemp가 다녔던 학교로 감동받는다.  또 어떤 사람들에게는 그저 그런 대학으로 아무런 감동이 없다.  무엇보다 캠퍼스는 너무 아름답다; Eagle Rock의 꼭대기에 위치하여 LA의 전경을 아름답게 꾸미고 있으며 Huntington Library를 디자인한 건축가 Myron Hunt가 만든 빌딩과 유칼립스 나무가 아름답게 어우러져 있다.  그래서 이 대학은 수많은 영화 장면에 나왔다.  Wikipedia에서 찾아볼 수 있다(  또한 학문적으로도 졸업생들의 박사학위 취득률이 으뜸이다.  UCSD의 의과대학은 이 대학출신을 선호한다: 탄탄한 학부공부와 리서치에 강하기 때문.

한편, 옥시덴탈 대학은 왜 포모나 대학만큼의 인기를 못 누릴까?  두 대학 모두 1895년에 미식축구팀을 창설하였으며, west coast football 경쟁자들이다.  올해는 옥시덴탈이 포모나를 이겼으나, 학생들은 거의 신경을 쓰지 않고 있다.  옥시대학은 운동솜씨를 뽐내기 보다는 학문적이다(물론 재학생의 1/4이 운동팀에 있지만).  학생들에게 더 중요한 것은 도서관이 월-금 24/7으로 열리는 것이다.  또한 토요일도 밤 12시까지 열리므로 너무 편리하다.

두 가지 점에서 옥시대학은 약간 두렵다.  먼저, 재학생 보유률이 91%로 2학년에 올라간다(돈이 떨어졌거나 아니면 맞는 대학이 아니었는지?).  즉, 500명의 학생 중 50명은 이 대학으로 돌아오지 않는다; 약간 심하지만, 옥시대학의 학업은 정말 진지하다.  옥시대학은 우수한 튜터링 센터와 탄탄한 지도상담을 갖추고 있다.  그럼에도 80%만이 4년 만에 졸업을 한다.  다음, 학비가 1년 $55,000로 매년 5%씩 상승하고 있다.

옥시대학의 Core 커리큘럼은 두 과목의 글쓰기와 세미나로 이루어져 있다.  여러분이 “고전문학의 장르”를 택한다면, 논리적인 글쓰기를 배울 것이다.  또한 옥시대학은 실습프로그램이 우수하다.  Diplomacy and World Affairs과목은 한 학기 유엔 사무국에서 인턴을 하도록 강요한다.  Urban and Environmental Policy또한 강한 프로그램이다.  다양한 리서치에 실습이 우수하다.  이 대학교수들도 아주 잘나간다.  전 과학회에 따르면, 과학 공학분야에서 Ph.D를 주는 탑 25개 대학에 속한다.  1981년 이래로 600명의 학생이 의학, 치의학대학에 진학했으며, 졸업생의 5%에 속한다.

교수들도 우수하고 접근하기 쉽다.  옥시대학 학생들은 Cal Tech의 수업을 무료로 들을 수 있으며, 또한 옥시대학의 성적이 우수한 pre-law 학생들은 3학년때 Columbia 대학과 연계하여 두개의 학위-Occidental B.A. 와 Columbia JD를 받을 수 있다.

이 대학에 다니고 싶고 남가주에 살고 싶다면, 캠퍼스를 방문하길 바란다.  옥시대학의 Common application의 보충자료의 첫 질문이 “여러분이 캠퍼스를 방문했다면, 방문 후의 경험에 대하여 진술하여라”이다.  만약 50마일 이내에 산다면, 꼭 방문하길 바란다.  그리고 찬사를 보낼 것이다: 옥시대학은 복잡한 대도시 한 가운데에서 아름답고, 활동적인, 소규모의 인문대학이다.  정말 많은 것을 얻을 수 있는 드문 보석이다.


How Colleges and Salaries Match Up

How Colleges and Salaries Match Up Which Diplomas have the Highest Payback? Ivy League versus the other Schools There will always be endless debates about whether an Ivy League school or other highly selective school is worth the price of admission. Now, however, there is hard evidence about the actual payback for attending a certain school. Not that this information is the last word in these debates, but it certainly supplies the numbers one might want to see  when sharpening the pencil and figuring out what are the probable returns associated with attending an UC San Diego instead of a Princeton. The numbers come from Payscale, Inc. ( ), an on-line service that tracks salary information. Payscale conducted a yearlong survey of 1.2 million bachelor degree graduates with over 10 years of work experience. The participants in the survey had attended over 300 different US schools. Further, to avoid skewing the results of the survey, any graduates with professional degrees (JD, MBA, MD) were eliminated from the survey. (p. D4, Needleman, Sarah, “Ivy Leaguers’ Big Edge: Starting Pay,” Wall Street Journal, 31 July 2009) Note that “mid-career median salary” is defined as at least 10 years after graduation, with a median timeframe of 15.5 years.  You can, of course, go to the website to find all the methodology behind the study. The survey looked at the starting and mid-career salaries of graduates from the best engineering schools, the best Ivy League schools, the top liberal arts schools, the top state colleges, and, my particular favorite, the top party schools (listed as such by The 2008 Princeton Review College Guide.) The top 3 schools in each of the categories (I excluded the party schools) are at the bottom of this article. There are some distinct surprises in the survey findings. One is that Ivy League graduates earned a starting salary 32% higher than other liberal arts college graduates. Further, the spread between the two grew to 34% after 10 years in the workforce. So, possibly, there is some magic to the Ivy League cachet. Yet, even within the Ivy League there is a substantial spread between the head of the league and the bottom. Mid-career Dartmouth graduates are the highest Ivy League earners at $134,000; Columbia's are the lowest at $107,000: below like graduates from UC Berkeley, Bucknell University (PA), and Colgate (NY) as well. More interesting still, though engineering graduates have, by far, the highest median starting salaries, 10 years after graduation their median total compensation grew by 76%, while that of "liberal arts" grew 95%.  In short, there are no hard and fast rules when it comes to colleges and majors, for determining the surest path to success. Certainly knowledge helps, but apparently, so does having the right contacts to the best opportunities.  Those contacts might be made more effectively at Bucknell, according to this study, than at Columbia. Which leads us to the most realistic conclusion of all: our college careers translate into whatever we can make of them.  Ivy College Prep, LLC,, (949) 474-6026. Please email me with any comments you might have. Liberal Arts Starting Median Salary Mid-Career Median salary Engineering Starting Median Salary Mid-Career Median salary Bucknell University $       54,100 $                110,000 MIT $          72,200 $                126,000 Colgate University $       52,800 $                108,000 Cal Tech $          75,500 $                123,000 Amherst College $       54,500 $                107,000 Harvey Mudd $          71,800 $                122,000 Ivy League Schools Starting Median Salary Mid-Career Median salary State Schools Starting Median Salary Mid-Career Median salary Dartmouth College $          58,000 $                  134,000 UC, Berkeley $          59,900 $                 112,000 Princeton University $          66,500 $                  131,000 University of Virginia $          52,700 $                 103,000 Yale University $          59,100 $                  126,000 Cal Poly San Luis Obispo $          57,200 $                 101,000 Source: PayScale, Inc. survey ??? ??? ???? * ?? ??? ?? ???? ????? * ????? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??.  ?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????.  ??? ??? ??? UC San Diego ??? Princeton ??? ???? ??? ??? ? ? ??? ? ????. ????? ???? ??? Payscale, Inc. (  ??? ???? ??? ? ? ??.  Payscale ??? 10? ??? ???  120??? ??, ?? ???? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?????.  ??????? ? ??? 300 ??? ?????????.  ??, ???? ?? ??? ??(JD, MBA, MD)? ?????(p. D4, Needleman, Sarah, "Ivy Leaguers' Big Edge: Starting Pay," Wall Street Journal, 31 July 2009).  ??? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ? ? ? ???, ???? 'mid-career median salary'? ??? ??? 10????? ??, ??? ??? 15.5??? ?? ??. ? ????? ??? the best engineering schools, the best Ivy League schools, the top liberal arts schools, the top state colleges, ??? ?? ??? ?? the top party schools? 5??? ???? ?? (listed as such by The 2008 Princeton Review College Guide.) ?? ??? ??, ??? ??? 3??? ???? ?? ??? ??? ? ??. ? ?????? ???? ?? ????.  ??, ????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ????? 32%? ? ?? ??? ?? ??.  ??, 10??? ? ???? ??? 34%? ??? ??? ???.  ????, ???? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???. ???, ????? ????? ??? ??? ???.  Dartmouth ???? $134,000? ???, Columbia ????? ??? $107,000? ???.  ??UC Berkeley, Bucknell University (PA), and Colgate (NY)  ??? ?? ????.  ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??? 10?? 76%? ??? ??? ??, ???? ???? 95%? ??? ???.  ???? ??? ?? ?, ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???.  ?? ??? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??? ? ?? ???? ??? ????.  ?? ??, Columbia ??? Bucknell? ? ?????.  ???? ??? ?????:  ?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???? ????. Translated by Joann Kim, Assistant Director, Ivy College Prep, LLC ?? ?? ?? ?? 1

The Fall 2009 Admissions Update

  • Substantial increase in Early Action applications
  • Early Decision applications vary
  • Ivies up as special grant programs take effect
The number of students graduating from high school crested with the class of 2009. Competition was particularly keen for the early action and early decision rounds (at most schools). Yet, in the face of a troubled economy, many schools saw regular applications decline—though, not unsurprisingly, the most selective schools, with their large endowments and need-blind admissions, remained as popular as ever.  As the fat and skinny envelopes are beginning to course their way through the mails, it is a good time to look at what’s going on with the admissions process this year. Early action single choice (EASC) applications were uniformly up. This year, Stanford’s EASC applications increased 18%, MIT’s 25%, and Yale’s 10%. What declined were EASC acceptances at each school: Yale admitted 13.4% (742 of 5,557) of its EASC applicants, down from 18% last year, Stanford, 12.8%, down from 16.2%, and MIT, 10.1%, down from 13.3%.  EASC gives applicants an edge in the admissions process, at least statistically. That edge, however, is declining. Early decision (ED) application numbers varied. Wesleyan, in Middletown, Connecticut, is up 40%. Other campuses having double digit increases in ED applications include: Dartmouth and Middlebury, each up over 10%; Haverford up 14%; Northwestern up 15%; and Pomona up 20%.  Bowdoin, another small liberal arts school located in Maine, had an increase in ED applications by slightly less than 8%.  The US News and World Report top liberal colleges, Williams and Amherst, found their ED application numbers flat. ED applications, on the other hand, were down at Brown by 4.5%, a surprise as this year Brown adopted the Common Application, usually bringing an increase in applicants. Separately, for the second successive year, University of Pennsylvania ED applications declined: this year by 8%. The number of California ED applicants to Penn dropped by 12%, from 332 to 292. Regular applications to the highly selective schools, most of whom now supply grants rather than loans to offset their high costs (information on these programs at Yale, Harvard, Stanford, and many others can be found at /wordpress/), had increases: Princeton received 21,859 ,up 2.3 % from last year; Harvard, exceeded 29,000, up 5%, with over 78% of applicants seeking financial aid; MIT up 17%; Dartmouth over 18,000, up 9%;  Stanford, over 30,000, up 20%; Yale up 13%; and Brown, despite a lackluster ED, more than 25,000, up over 20%. While the Ivies, for the most part, blew the lid off their regular application numbers, the liberal arts schools were either flat or down: Amherst down 1%; Carleton College (MN) down 3.5%; Bowdoin (MN), though a hot performer for ED applicants, was down for regular by 1.6%; Pomona College (Claremont CA.) down 2.2%; Williams College down 20%; Swarthmore down 10%; and Middlebury down 12%. Switching to the West Coast, USC saw regular applications remain flat, at around 35,000, as, ironically, did UCLA, which received about the same number of applications as last year, slightly over 55,000. USC, as well as Boston College, Colgate (New York), and the University of Santa Clara, are all raising the number of admissions by a few percentage points to offset the possible reduction of their yields (number of students accepted that elect to attend) in these difficult economic times. What had appeared to be a very competitive admissions process, especially among the early applications, seems to have cooled off by the time the regular applications were due (for the University of California, the end of November; for the private schools, early January). Not surprisingly, as the year ended, so the economy began to sink into recession—apparently this drove a certain number of applicants away from the “liberal arts” schools.  The Ivies, and the most selective schools, with their large endowments and generous tuition grants, surged. Grants and reputation tend to drive the action. They are this year as well. Ralph Becker Founder, Ivy College Prep LLC -------------------------------------- 2009년도 입학사정 최신정보
  • 얼리 액션 원서의 증가
  • 다양한 얼리 디시젼의 추세
  • 아이비 대학들의 상승하는 인기
2009년도에 졸업하는 고등학생의 수가 늘어나면서, (대부분의 학교에서) 얼리 액션과 얼리 디시젼의 경쟁이 아주 높아졌다.  한편, 불안한 경제 국면에 직면하여, 많은 학교들이 정규 원서가 줄었지만, 대부분의 명문대에서는 자산을 바탕으로 재정형편과 관계없음으로 그 어느 때보다도 인기가 높았다.  큰 봉투와 얇은 봉투로 입학의 소식이 오는 이 때, 올 입시과정을 살펴보고자 한다. 얼리 (EASC) 응시원서가 일률적으로 올라갔다.  Stanford의 EASC 원서가 18% 올라갔으며, MIT는 25%, and Yale은 10% 올라갔다. 따라서, 합격률은 내려갔다: Yale은 작년의 18%에 비해 13.4% (742 of 5,557)이었으며, Stanford는 작년 16.2%에 비해 12.8%이었으며, MIT도 13.3%에서 10.1%로 내려갔다. 얼리는 입학사정에서 응시자에게 강점을 주는데, 합격률 비율이 내려간 것이다. 얼리 디시젼(ED)의 원서량은 다양했다Wesleyan과 Connecticut은 40% 올라갔다. 또 다른 대학에서는 2자리수로 올라갔다:  Dartmouth and Middlebury는 10%; Haverford up 14%; Northwestern up 15%; and Pomona up 20%.  메이주에 있는 작은 인문대학인 Bowdoin대학은 8%가까이 올랐다.  US News and World Report의 최고 인문대학인 Williams and Amherst대학의 얼리 디시젼은 같은 수 였다. 한편, 올해 처음으로 Common Application을 도입한 Bronw 대학은 ED 원서량이 4.5%까지 내려갔다(보통은 원서량이 더 올라감).  또한 2년째인 University of Pennsylvania의 ED원서도 8%까지로 감소했다.  올해 가주 응시자수는 12%(332명에서 292명으로)까지 감소했다. 높은 등록금에 대부가 아닌 그랜트를 제공하는 최고의 명문대의 정규 원서량은 올라갔다(  Princeton은 작년보다 2.3%가 올라간 21,859원서를 받았으며, Harvard는 5% 올라간 29,000의 원서를 받았으며, 이중 78% 가 재정보조를 원하는 것이었다.  MIT는 17%, Dartmouth는 9%가 올라간18,000의 원서를 받았고, Stanford는 20%가 올라간 30,000의 원서를 Yale은 13%가 올랐으며, ED의 그늘에도 불구하고Brown은 20%가 올라간 25,000이 넘는 원서를 받았다. 대부분의 아이비 명문들이 정규 원서접수에서 넘치게 받은 반면, 인문대학들은 같거나 내려갔다.   Amherst down 1%; Carleton College (MN) down 3.5%; ED에서 인기가 있었던 Bowdoin (MN)도 1.6%내려갔으며, Pomona College (Claremont CA.) down 2.2%; Williams College down 20%; Swarthmore down 10%; and Middlebury down 12%로 내려갔다. 서부해안을 살펴보면, USC의 원서량은 예년과 비슷하며, 35,000정도 였다. UCLA의 경우 작년과 비슷한 55,000이 넘는 원서가 접수되었다.  USC, Boston College, Colgate (New York), and the University of Santa Clara대학은 경제난국으로 인해 등록률이 낮아질 것에 대비해 합격률을 높이려한다. 얼리 원서들이 매우 경쟁적인 입학사정 과정을 지켜보면서, 이제 정규 원서(UC는 11월말, 사립대학은 1월말마감) 결과를 지켜보면서 차분해질 시기이다.  사실 경제가 공항에 접어들면서 인문대학의 원서량은 두드러지게 감소되었다.  그러나 풍부한 자산과 너그러운 그랜트를 줄 수 있는 명문 아이비대학들은 원서량이 더 높아지고 있다.  그랜트와 명성이 더 부추기고 있는데, 올해도 변함이 없다.